We thank Dr. Isaac Held for many useful discussions and suggestions for this work. Thanks are also due to Drs. Michela Biasutti, Mark Cane, Tom Delworth, Alessandra Giannini, and Lisa Goddard for helpful discussions and to two anonymous reviewers for their many constructive comments. The work was supported by NOAA Grant NA030AR4320179 on abrupt climate change.
Cane, M. A., A. C. Clement, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir, D. Pozdnyakov, R. Seager, S. E. Zebiak, and R. Murtugudde, 1997: Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends. Science, 275 , 957–960.
Chang, P., R. Saravanan, L. Ji, and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: The effect of local sea surface temperatures on atmospheric circulation over the tropical Atlantic sector. J. Climate, 13 , 2195–2216.
Chylek, P., M. K. Dubey, and G. Lesins, 2006: Greenland warming of 1920–1930 and 1995–2005. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L11707. doi:10.1029/2006GL026510.
Enfield, D. B., A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, and P. J. Trimble, 2001: The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 2077–2080.
Goldenberg, S. B., and L. J. Shapiro, 1996: Physical mechanisms for the association of El Niño and West African rainfall with Atlantic major hurricane activity. J. Climate, 9 , 1169–1187.
Goldenberg, S. B., C. Landsea, A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, and W. M. Gray, 2001: The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications. Science, 293 , 474–479.
Harzallah, A., and R. Sadourny, 1995: Internal versus SST-forced atmospheric variability as simulated by an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate, 8 , 474–495.
Hurrel, J. W., M. P. Hoerling, A. S. Phillips, and T. Xu, 2004: Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part I: Assessing determinism. Climate Dyn., 23 , 371–389.
Knight, J. R., C. K. Folland, and A. A. Scaife, 2006: Climate impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L17706. doi:10.1029/2006GL026242.
Knutson, T. R., T. L. Delworth, K. W. Dixon, and R. J. Stouffer, 1999: Model assessment of regional surface temperature trends (1949–1997). J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 30981–30996.
Kravtsov, S., and C. Spannagle, 2008: Multidecadal climate variability in observed and modeled surface temperatures. J. Climate, 21 , 1104–1121.
Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate, 7 , 141–157.
Mann, M. E., and K. Emanuel, 2006: Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 87 , 233–244.
McCabe, G. J., M. A. Palecki, and J. L. Betancourt, 2004: Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multi-decadal drought frequency in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101 , 4136–4141. doi:10.1073/pnas.0306738101.
Santer, B. D., and Coauthors, 2006: Forced and unforced ocean temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103 , 13905–13910.
Schlesinger, M. E., and N. Ramankutty, 1994: An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65–70 years. Nature, 367 , 723–726.
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor, H. L. Miller Jr., and Z. Chen, Eds. 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Sutton, R. T., and D. L. R. Hodson, 2005: Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate. Science, 309 , 115–118.
Trenberth, K. E., and D. J. Shea, 2006: Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L12704. doi:10.1029/2006GL026894.
Venzke, S., M. R. Allen, R. T. Sutton, and D. P. Rowell, 1999: The atmospheric response over the North Atlantic to decadal changes in sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 12 , 2562–2584.
Wang, C., S-K. Lee, and D. B. Enfield, 2008: Climate response to anomalously large and small Atlantic warm pools during the summer. J. Climate, 21 , 2437–2450.
Webster, P. J., G. J. Holland, J. A. Curry, and H-R. Chang, 2005: Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science, 309 , 1844–1846.
Yin, J. H., 2005: A consistent poleward shift of the storm tracks in simulations of 21st century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L18701. doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.
Zhang, R., and T. Delworth, 2006: Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscillations on India/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L17712. doi:10.1029/2006GL026267.