This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through TeraGrid resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin. The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on this paper.
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It is important to note that the precipitation efficiency is defined and evaluated in terms of (3), so that it potentially includes contributions from the approximations used in deriving (2), in addition to the contribution from the difference between the surface precipitation rate and the column-integrated net condensation rate.
We have confirmed that the implied increase in precipitation efficiency is not simply an artifact of the simplifying assumptions in our scaling derivation [ds ≃ −Lυdqsat and using the global mean qsat in the scaling (4)], although these assumptions do make some contribution to the discrepancy between changes in the scaling and the precipitation extremes.
The lifted parcel conserves dry static energy cpT + gz below the lifted condensation level (LCL) and liquid/ice moist static energy cpT + gz − Lcqc − Lsqi and total water qc + qi + qυ above the LCL, with the partition of condensates between qi and qc determined as a function of temperature as in the CRM. The reversible and pseudoadiabatic CAPE calculations differ by the condensate loading terms [last two terms in (8)], which are only included in the reversible CAPE computation. The effect of water on specific heat capacity is not included in the CRM.