The authors thank the Texas Advanced Computing Center for providing computer resources and technical support. NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data were obtained from the Research Data Archive (http://dss.ucar.edu/datasets/ds090.0/), which is maintained by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at NCAR. Financial support was provided by NASA (Grant NNX11AE42G), “National Basic Research Program of China” Project 2011CB952004, National Natural Science Foundation of China General Program (Grant 40905042), and KAUST.
Ainslie, B., and P. L. Jackson, 2010: Downscaling and bias correcting a cold season precipitation climatology over coastal southern British Columbia using the regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS). J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 937–953.
Bukovsky, M. S., and D. J. Karoly, 2011: A regional modeling study of climate change impacts on warm-season precipitation in the central United States. J. Climate, 24, 1985–2002.
Caldwell, P., H.-N. S. Chin, D. C. Bader, and G. Bala, 2009: Evaluation of a WRF dynamical downscaling simulation over California. Climatic Change, 95, 499–521.
Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569–585.
Collins, W. D., and Coauthors, 2004: Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.0). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-464+STR, 214 pp.
Cook, K. H., and E. K. Vizy, 2008: Effects of twenty-first-century climate change on the Amazon rain forest. J. Climate, 21, 542–560.
Cooley, D., 2009: Extreme value analysis and the study of climate change: A commentary on Wigley 1988. Climatic Change, 97, 77–83.
Dickinson, R. E., R. M. Errico, F. Giorgi, and G. T. Bates, 1989: A regional climate model for the western United States. Climatic Change, 15, 383–422.
Giorgi, F., and B. Hewitson, 2001: Regional climate information—Evaluation and projections. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, J. T. Houghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 583–638.
Giorgi, F., C. S. Brodeur, and G. T. Bates, 1994: Regional climate change scenarios over the United States produced with a nested regional climate model. J. Climate, 7, 357–399.
Heikkila, U., A. Sandvik, and A. Sorteberg, 2010: Dynamical downscaling of ERA-40 in complex terrain using the WRF regional climate model. Climate Dyn., 37, 1551–1564, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0928-6.
Holland, G. J., J. Done, C. Bruyere, C. Cooper, and A. Suzuki, 2010: Model investigations of the effects of climate variability and change on future Gulf of Mexico tropical cyclone activity. Proc. Offshore Technology Conf., Houston, TX, ASCE, OTC 20690. [Available online at http://www.netl.doe.gov/kmd/RPSEA_Project_Outreach/07121-DW1801_OTC-20690-MS.pdf.]
Hong, S.-Y., Y. Noh, and J. Dudhia, 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2318–2341.
Jin, J. M., S. Y. Wang, and R. R. Gillies, 2011: An improved dynamical downscaling for the western United States. Climate Change: Research and Technology for Adaptation and Mitigation, J. Blanco and H. Kheradmand, Eds., InTech, 23–38.
Kanamitsu, M., K. Yoshimura, Y.-B. Yhang, and S.-Y. Hong, 2010: Errors of interannual variability and trend in dynamical downscaling of reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D17115, doi:10.1029/2009JD013511.
Khairoutdinov, M., D. Randall, and C. DeMott, 2005: Simulations of the atmospheric general circulation using a cloud-resolving model as a superparameterization of physical processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2136–2154.
Kim, J., and N. L. Miller, 2000: A seasonal precipitation and stream flow hindcast and prediction study in the western United States during the 1997/98 winter season using a dynamic downscaling system. J. Hydrometeor., 1, 311–329.
Leung, L. R., Y. Qian, and X. Bian, 2003: Hydroclimate of the western United States based on observations and regional climate simulations of 1981–2000. Part I: Seasonal statistics. J. Climate, 16, 1892–1911.
Lo, J. C., Z.-L. Yang, and R. A. Pielke Sr., 2008: Assessment of three dynamical climate downscaling methods using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09112, doi:10.1029/2007JD009216.
Mearns, L. O., W. J. Gutowski, R. Jones, L.-Y. Leung, S. McGinnis, A. M. B. Nunes, and Y. Qian, 2009: A regional climate change assessment program for North America. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 90, 311–312.
Neale, R. B., and Coauthors, 2010: Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-486+STR, 268 pp. [Available online at http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/models/cesm1.0/cam/docs/description/cam5_desc.pdf.]
Oleson, K. W. Coauthors, 2010: Technical description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-478+STR, 257 pp.
Patricola, C. M., and K. H. Cook, 2010: Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: An integrated application of regional and global climate models. Climate Dyn., 35, 193–212.
Pausader, M., D. Bernie, S. Parey, and M. Nogaj, 2011: Computing the distribution of return levels of extreme warm temperatures for future climate projections. Climate Dyn., 38, 1003–1015, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1032-2.
Rojas, M., and A. Seth, 2003: Simulation and sensitivity in a nested modeling study for South America. Part II: GCM boundary forcing. J. Climate, 16, 2454–2471.
Sato, T., F. Kimura, and A. Kitoh, 2007: Projection of global warming onto regional precipitation over Mongolia using a regional climate model. J. Hydrol., 333, 144–154.
Seth, A., and M. Rojas, 2003: Simulation and sensitivity in a nested modeling study for South America. Part I: Reanalysis boundary forcing. J. Climate, 16, 2437–2453.
Seth, A., S. A. Rauscher, S. J. Camargo, J.-H. Qian, and J. S. Pal, 2007: RegCM3 regional climatologies for South America using reanalysis and ECHAM global model driving fields. Climate Dyn., 28, 461–480, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0191-z.
Shukla, J., and K. R. Saha, 1974: Computation of non-divergent streamfunction and irrotational velocity potential from the observed winds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 419–425.
Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp. [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf.]
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor, H. L. Miller Jr., and Z. Chen, Eds., 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
van der Linden, P., and J. F. B. Mitchell, Eds., 2009: ENSEMBLES: Climate change and its impacts: Summary of research and results from the ENSEMBLES project. Met Office Hadley Centre Rep., 160 pp. [Available online at http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com/docs/Ensembles_final_report_Nov09.pdf.]
Wang, Y., L. R. Leung, J. L. Mcgregor, D.-K. Lee, W.-C. Wang, Y. Ding, and F. Kimura, 2004: Regional climate modeling: Progress, challenges and prospects. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82, 1599–1628.
Wu, W., and A. H. Lynch, 2000: Response of the seasonal carbon cycle in high latitudes to climate anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D18), 22 897–22 908.
Wu, W., A. H. Lynch, and A. Rivers, 2005: Estimating the uncertainty in a regional climate model related to initial and lateral boundary conditions. J. Climate, 18, 917–933.