The authors thank Tom Delworth, John Krasting, Peter Gent, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript.
Beckmann, A., and R. Döscher, 1997: A method for improved representation of dense water spreading over topography in geopotential-coordinate models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 581–591.
Belkin, I. M., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, and S.-A. Malmberg, 1998: “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 41, 1–68.
Clarke, L., J. Edmonds, H. Jacoby, H. Pitcher, J. Reilly, and R. Richels, 2007: Scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric concentrations. U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 Subrep. 2.1A, 154 pp.
Collins, M., C. M. Brierley, M. MacVean, B. B. B. Booth, and G. R. Harris, 2007: The sensitivity of the rate of transient climate change to ocean physics perturbations. J. Climate, 20, 2315–2320.
Danabasoglu, G., W. G. Large, and B. P. Briegleb, 2010: Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C11005, doi:10.1029/2010JC006243.
Delworth, T. L., and K. W. Dixon, 2006: Have anthropogenic aerosols delayed a greenhouse gas–induced weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation? Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02606, doi:10.1029/2005GL024980.
Delworth, T. L., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part I: Formulation and simulation characteristics. J. Climate, 19, 643–674.
Delworth, T. L., and Coauthors, 2012: Simulated climate and climate change in the GFDL CM2.5 high-resolution coupled climate model. J. Climate, 25, 2755–2781.
Donner, L. J., and Coauthors, 2011: The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3. J. Climate, 24, 3484–3519.
Dufresne, J.-L., and S. Bony, 2008: An assessment of the primary sources of spread of global warming estimates from coupled atmosphere–ocean models. J. Climate, 21, 5135–5144.
Dunne, J. P., and Coauthors, 2012: GFDL’s ESM2 global coupled climate–carbon earth system models. Part I: Physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics. J. Climate, 25, 6646–6665.
Eisenman, I., T. Schneider, D. S. Battisti, and C. M. Bitz, 2011: Consistent changes in the sea ice seasonal cycle in response to global warming. J. Climate, 24, 5325–5335.
Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie, 2009: Sea ice index. National Snow and Ice Data Center, digital media. [Available online at http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/.]
Gleckler, P., K. Taylor, and C. Doutriaux, 2008: Performance metrics for climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D06104, doi:10.1029/2007JD008972.
Good, P., J. M. Gregory, and J. A. Lowe, 2011: A step-response simple climate model to reconstruct and interpret AOGCM projections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L01703, doi:10.1029/2010GL045208.
Gregory, J. M., and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1997: The climate response to CO2 of the Hadley Centre coupled AOGCM with and without flux adjustment. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1943–1946.
Gregory, J. M., and Coauthors, 2004: A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03205, doi:10.1029/2003GL018747.
Gregory, J. M., and Coauthors, 2005: A model intercomparison of changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Geophys. Res. Lett., L12703, doi:10.1029/2005GL023209.
Griffies, S. M., R. C. Pacanowski, and R. W. Hallberg, 2000: Spurious diapycnal mixing associated with advection in a z-coordinate ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 538–564.
Griffies, S. M., and Coauthors, 2011: The GFDL CM3 coupled climate model: Characteristics of the ocean and sea ice simulations. J. Climate, 24, 3520–3544.
Hasselmann, K., R. Sausen, E. Maier-Reimer, and R. Voss, 1993: On the cold start problem in transient simulations with coupled atmosphere–ocean models. Climate Dyn., 9, 53–61.
Held, I. M., M. Winton, K. Takahashi, T. L. Delworth, F. Zeng, and G. K. Vallis, 2010: Probing the fast and slow components of global warming by returning abruptly to preindustrial forcing. J. Climate, 23, 2418–2427.
IIASA, cited 2011: RCP Database, version 2.0.5. [Available online at http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/tnt/RcpDb/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=welcome.]
Ilicak, M., A. Adcroft, S. M. Griffies, and R. W. Hallberg, 2011: Spurious dianeutral mixing and the role of momentum closure. Ocean Modell., 45–46, 37–58, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.10.003.
Jackson, L., R. Hallberg, and S. Legg, 2008: A parameterization of shear-driven turbulence for ocean climate models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1033–1053.
Legg, S., R. W. Hallberg, and J. B. Girton, 2006: Comparison of entrainment in overflows simulated by z-coordinate, isopycnal and non-hydrostatic models. Ocean Modell., 11, 69–97.
Legg, S., and Coauthors, 2009: Improving oceanic overflow representation in climate models: The gravity current entrainment climate process team. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 657–670.
Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T. Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp.
Megann, A. P., A. L. New, A. T. Blaker, and B. Sinha, 2010: The sensitivity of a coupled climate model to its ocean component. J. Climate, 23, 5126–5150.
Raper, S. C., J. M. Gregory, and R. J. Stouffer, 2002: The role of climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on AOGCM transient temperature response. J. Climate, 15, 124–130.
Rugenstein, M. A. A., M. Winton, R. J. Stouffer, S. M. Griffies, R. W. Hallberg, 2013: Northern high-latitude heat budget decomposition and transient warming. J. Climate, in press.
Soden, B. J., and I. M. Held, 2006: An assessment of climate feedbacks in coupled ocean–atmosphere models. J. Climate, 19, 3354–3360.
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor, H. L. Miller Jr., and Z. Chen, Eds., 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Stouffer, R. J., and Coauthors, 2006: GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. Part IV: Idealized climate response. J. Climate, 19, 723–740.
Sun, S., and R. Bleck, 2006: Multi-century simulations with the coupled GISS-HYCOM climate model: Control experiments. Climate Dyn., 26, 407–428, doi:10.1007/s00382-005-0091-7.
Williams, K. D., W. J. Ingram, and J. M. Gregory, 2008: Time variation of effective climate sensitivity in GCMs. J. Climate, 21, 5076–5090.
Winton, M., 2011: Do climate models underestimate the sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere sea ice cover? J. Climate, 24, 3924–3934.
Winton, M., R. W. Hallberg, and A. Gnanadesikan, 1998: Simulation of density-driven frictional downslope flow in z-coordinate ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 2163–2174.
Winton, M., K. Takahashi, and I. M. Held, 2010: Importance of ocean heat uptake efficacy to transient climate change. J. Climate, 23, 2333–2344.
Yashayaev, I., J. R. N. Lazier, and R. A. Clarke, 2003: Temperature and salinity in the central Labrador Sea. Hydrobiological Variability in the ICES Area, 1990–1999, ICES Marine Symposia Series, Vol. 219, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 32–39.
Zhang, X. D., and J. E. Walsh, 2006: Toward a seasonally ice-covered Arctic ocean: Scenarios from the IPCC AR4 model simulations. J. Climate, 19, 1730–1747.