AD was supported by the NOAA Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship. We thank Dargan Frierson for providing the GFDL aquaplanet simulations. We acknowledge the modeling groups, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI), and the WCRP’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) for their roles in making available the WCRP CMIP3 multimodel dataset. Support of this dataset is provided by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. We also thank three anonymous reviewers and Editor John Chiang for insightful comments and edits.
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Similar results are found using the regions equatorward of 15° and 30° in each hemisphere.
Moist static energy is the sum of sensible, latent, and potential energy (cpT + Lq + gZ).
In this framework, the net flux into the ocean is SWNET,SURF − SHF = OHT + S.
We note that, in this particular case, the time spent in the boreal and austral summer extremes is approximately equal (the lobes of the smoothed histogram are comparable in magnitude) and the annual mean falls nearly equidistant from the extremes. If more time was spent in either of the seasonal extremes, the lobes would have different magnitudes and the annual mean would be shifted toward the more populated lobe.