The authors were supported by the Joint Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme, DECC/Defra (GA01101). We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. We thank Jamie Kettleborough, Ian Edmond, and Emma Hibling for developing the software used to download CMIP5 data and Peter Good, Peili Wu, Mark Webb, Mark Ringer, and Shang-Ping Xie for useful discussions. We would also like to thank three anonymous reviewers, whose insightful comments helped to significantly improve the quality of the final manuscript.
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