This study forms a portion of the Ph.D. dissertation of MJD. Funding was provided by NSF (OCE-0960770 and AGS-1048995), DOE (DE-SC0002000), and NOAA (ECPC: NA17RJ1231). Thanks to Andrew Gettelman (NCAR) for providing information about CCSM4 runs, Alexander Gershunov (SIO) for enlightening discussions regarding North Pacific variability, and Stephen Colucci (Cornell University) for theoretical background on midlatitude synoptic storms. We also thank Aneesh Subramanian (SIO) for assistance in accessing the CCSM4 monthly run. Suggestions by three reviewers were very useful in improving the paper.
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