This research was supported by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); by NASA through Grant NNX07AG53G; and by NOAA through Grant NA11NMF4320128, which sponsors research at the International Pacific Research Center. E.A.M. is supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) program. D.M.W.F is funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) Grants ATM-0846641 and ATM-0936059.
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The narrow body of water between Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula.
For example, SST(y) = [SST(y) + SST(−y)]/2 + [SST(y) − SST(−y)]/2 = SSTs(y) + SSTa(y), where SSTs(−y) = SSTs(y) and SSTa(−y) = −SSTa(y). The basic equatorially symmetrized component of some fields is symmetric (θ, S, q, u, etc.), while in others it is antisymmetric (υ, ψ, etc.).
The asymmetry index of total extratropical net surface heat flux is defined as the half of the difference between total surface heat flux in the extratropics of the NH and the SH. Surface heat flux is positive upward, so positive (negative) values of this asymmetry index represent excess ocean heat release in the NH (SH) extratropics.
We define it as the total precipitation in the NH deep tropics, between the equator and 10°N, minus the total precipitation in the SH deep tropics, between 10°S and the equator, Positive (negative) values occur if the ITCZ is in the NH (SH).