We acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme's Working Group on Coupled Modelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP the U.S. Department of Energy's Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. We wish to thank L. X. Xu and S. M. Long for data preparation. This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB955600), the Natural Science Foundation of China (41106010, 41176006, 40921004), the 111 Project (B07036), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA05090400, LTOZZ1202), the Qianren Programs, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology.
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