Vaisala Inc. of Tucson, Arizona, processed the Canadian Lightning Detection Network data and provided telecommunication services to Environment Canada. We thank Bill Burrows (Environment Canada) for processing and providing the 1 × 1 km2 gridded lightning data.
Allen, D. E., 1984: Tornado damage at Blue Sea Lake and Nicabong, Quebec, July 1984. National Research Council of Canada Building Research Note 222, 12 pp.
Allen, D. E., 1986: Tornado damage in the Barrie/Orangeville area, Ontario, May 1985. National Research Council of Canada Building Research Note 240, 23 pp.
Anderson, C. J., C. K. Wikle, Q. Zhou, and J. A. Royle, 2007: Population influences on tornado reports in the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 571–579.
Arhonditsis, G. B., S. S. Qian, C. A. Stow, E. C. Lamon, and K. H. Reckhow, 2007: Eutrophication risk assessment using Bayesian calibration of process-based models: Application to a mesotrophic lake. Ecol. Modell., 208, 215–229.
Arhonditsis, G. B., D. Papantou, W. Zhang, G. Perhar, E. Massos, and M. Shi, 2008a: Bayesian calibration of mechanistic aquatic biogeochemical models and benefits for environmental management. J. Mar. Syst., 73, 8–30.
Arhonditsis, G. B., G. Perhar, W. Zhang, E. Massos, M. Shi, and A. Das, 2008b: Addressing equifinality and uncertainty analysis in eutrophication modelling. Water Resour. Res., 44, W01420, doi:10.1029/2007WR005862.
Ashley, W. S., 2007: Spatial and temporal analysis of tornado fatalities in the United States: 1880–2005. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1214–1228.
Ashton, A., M. Leduc, and S. Boodoo, cited 2010a: August 20th 2009—The day the skies rained tornadoes. [Available online at http://www.yorku.ca/glomw10/Tues_March_23_AM/Ashton_Leduc_August%2020th_Talk%20One.ppt.]
Ashton, A., M. Leduc, and M. Firmin, cited 2010b: The August 20th 2009 tornado outbreak: Synoptic overview and the challenges of forecasting an extreme event. [Available online at http://www.yorku.ca/glomw10/Tues_March_23_AM/Ashton_LeducAugust%2020th%20Talk%20TWO.ppt.]
Besag, J., J. York, and A. Mollie, 1991: Bayesian image restoration, with two applications in spatial statistics (with discussion). Ann. Inst. Stat. Math., 43, 1–59.
Branick, M. L., and C. A. Doswell III, 1992: An observation of the relationship between supercell structure and lightning ground-strike polarity. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 143–149.
Brooks, H. E., C. A. Doswell III, and M. P. Kay, 2003a: Climatological estimates of local daily tornado probability for the United States. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 626–640.
Brooks, H. E., J. W. Lee, and J. P. Craven, 2003b: The spatial distribution of severe thunderstorm and tornado environments from global reanalysis data. Atmos. Res., 67–68, 73–94.
Burrows, W. R., and B. Kochtubajda, 2010: A decade of cloud-to-ground lightning in Canada: 1999–2008. Part 1: Flash density and occurrence. Atmos.–Ocean, 48, 177–194.
Carey, L. D., and S. A. Rutledge, 2003: Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning in severe and nonsevere storms over the central United States from 1989–1998. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4483, doi:10.1029/2002JD002951.
Carey, L. D., S. A. Rutledge, and W. A. Peterson, 2003: The relationship between severe storm reports and cloud-to-ground lightning polarity in the contiguous United States from 1989 to 1998. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1211–1228.
Carter, A. O., M. E. Millson, and D. E. Allen, 1989: Epidemiologic study of deaths and injuries due to tornadoes. Amer. J. Epidemiol., 130, 1209–1218.
Changnon, S. A., 1988a: Climatography of thunder events in the conterminous United States. Part I: Temporal aspects. J. Climate, 1, 389–398.
Changnon, S. A., 1988b: Climatography of thunder events in the conterminous United States. Part II: Spatial aspects. J. Climate, 1, 399–405.
Changnon, S. A., 1993: Relations between thunderstorms and cloud-to-ground lightning in the United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 88–105.
Cheng, V., G. B. Arhonditsis, and M. T. Brett, 2010: A revaluation of lake-phosphorus loading models using a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Ecol. Res., 25, 59–76.
Doswell, C. A., III, and D. W. Burgess, 1988: On some issues of United States tornado climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 495–501.
Etkin, D., and M. Leduc, 1994: A non-tornadic severe storm climatology of southern Ontario adjusted for population bias: Some surprising results. CMOS Bull., 21, 4–8.
Etkin, D., S. E. Brun, A. Shabbar, and P. Joe, 2001: Tornado climatology of Canada revisited: Tornado activity during different phases of ENSO. Int. J. Climatol., 21, 915–938.
Gelman, A., and J. Hill, 2007: Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 625 pp.
Goodchild, M. F., L. Anselin, and U. Deichman, 1993: A framework for the areal interpolation of socio-economic data. Environ. Plann., 25A, 383–397.
Grazulis, T. P., and R. F. Abbey Jr., 1983: 103 years of violent tornadoes: Patterns of serendipity, population, and mesoscale topography. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Tulsa, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 124–127.
Huffines, G. R., and R. E. Orville, 1999: Lightning ground flash density and thunderstorm duration in the continental United States: 1989–96. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 1013–1019.
Insurance Bureau of Canada, cited 2012: Goderich tornado costs $75 million in insured damage. [Available online at http://www.ibc.ca/en/media_centre/news_releases/2011/09-21-2011.asp.]
King, P., 1997: On the absence of population bias in the tornado climatology of southwestern Ontario. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 939–946.
King, P., M. J. Leduc, D. M. L. Sills, N. R. Donaldson, D. R. Hudak, P. Joe, and B. P. Murphy, 2003: Lake breezes in southern Ontario and their relation to tornado climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 795–807.
Knapp, D. I., 1994: Using cloud-to-ground lightning data to identify tornadic thunderstorm signatures and nowcast severe weather. Natl. Wea. Dig., 19, 35–42.
Lunn, D. J., A. Thomas, N. Best, and D. Spiegelhalter, 2000: WinBUGS—A Bayesian modelling framework: Concepts, structure, and extensibility. Stat. Comput., 10, 325–337.
MacGorman, D. R., and D. W. Burgess, 1994: Positive cloud-to-ground lightning in tornadic storms and hailstorms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1671–1697.
NBCC, 2005: National Building Code of Canada. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Newark, M. J., 1983: Tornadoes in Canada for the period 1950 to 1979. Atmospheric Environment Service Rep. CLI 2-83, 88 pp.
Perez, A. H., L. J. Wicker, and R. E. Orville, 1997: Characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning associated with violent tornadoes. Wea. Forecasting, 12, 428–437.
Ray, P. S., P. Bieringer, X. Niu, and B. Whissel, 2003: An improved estimate of tornado occurrence in the central plains of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1026–1031.
Reap, R. M., and D. R. MacGorman, 1989: Cloud-to-ground lightning: Climatological characteristics and relationships to model fields, radar observations, and severe local storms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 518–535.
Reap, R. M., and R. E. Orville, 1990: The relationships between network lightning locations and surface hourly observations of thunderstorms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 94–108.
Schaefer, J. T., and J. G. Galway, 1982: Population biases in tornado climatology. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 51–54.
Schaefer, J. T., D. L. Kelly, and R. F. Abbey, 1986: A minimum assumption tornado-hazard probability model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1934–1945.
Shephard, M. W., R. Morris, W. R. Burrows, and L. Welsh, 2013: High-resolution Canadian lightning climatology. Atmos.–Ocean, 51, 50–59.
Sills, D. M. L., V. Cheng, P. McCarthy, B. Rousseau, J. Waller, L. Elliot, J. Klaassen, and H. Auld, 2012: Using tornado, lightning, and population data to identify tornado prone areas in Canada. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P59. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/26SLS/webprogram/Paper211359.html.]
Statistics Canada, cited 2001: Census subdivision reference maps. [Available online at http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=92F0149XIB&lang=eng.]
Tan, L., and H. P. Hong, 2010: Influence of spatial inhomogeneity of tornado occurrence on estimated tornado hazard. Can. J. Civ. Eng., 37, 279–289.
Taylor, N. M., and Coauthors, 2011: The Understanding Severe Thunderstorms and Alberta Boundary Layers Experiment (UNSTABLE) 2008. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 739–763.
Tescon, J. J., T. T. Fujita, and R. F. Abbey Jr., 1983: Statistical analyses of U.S. tornadoes based on the geographic distribution of population, community, and other parameters. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Tulsa, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 120–123.
Wikle, C. K., and C. J. Anderson, 2003: Climatological analysis of tornado report counts using a hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal model. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 9005, doi:10.1029/2002JD002806.
Zhang, W., and G. B. Arhonditsis, 2009: A Bayesian hierarchical framework for calibrating aquatic biogeochemical models. Ecol. Modell., 220, 2142–2161.