The authors thank Dr. Urs Germann and Marco Boscacci of MeteoSwiss for providing operational radar data products. We also thank the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for providing free internet access to ERA-Interim reanalysis data (http://data-portal.ecmwf.int/data/d/interim_full_daily/) and MeteoSwiss for weather station data from the IDAWEB portal (https://gate.meteoswiss.ch/idaweb). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AGS-0937035 and the University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors, partners, and contributors.
Abatzoglou, J. T., and T. J. Brown, 2012: A comparison of statistical downscaling methods suited for wildfire applications. Int. J. Climatol., 32, 772–780, doi:10.1002/joc.2312.
Beuchat, X., B. Schaefli, M. Soutter, and A. Mermoud, 2012: A robust framework for probabilistic precipitations downscaling from an ensemble of climate predictions applied to Switzerland. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D03115, doi:10.1029/2011JD016449.
Chang, E. K. M., Y. Guo, and X. Xia, 2012: CMIP5 multimodel ensemble projection of storm track change under global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23118, doi:10.1029/2012JD018578.
Coulibaly, P., Y. B. Dibike, and F. Anctil, 2005: Downscaling precipitation and temperature with temporal neural networks. J. Hydrometeor., 6, 483–496.
Doswell, C. A., C. Ramis, R. Romero, and S. Alonso, 1998: A diagnostic study of three heavy precipitation episodes in the western Mediterranean region. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 102–124.
Grazzini, F., 2007: Predictability of a large-scale flow conducive to extreme precipitation over the western Alps. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 95, 123–138.
Gutmann, E. D., R. M. Rasmussen, C. Liu, K. Ikeda, D. J. Gochis, M. P. Clark, J. Dudhia, and G. Thompson, 2012: A comparison of statistical and dynamical downscaling of winter precipitation over complex terrain. J. Climate, 25, 262–281.
Haylock, M. R., G. C. Cawley, C. Harpham, R. L. Wilby, and C. M. Goodess, 2006: Downscaling heavy precipitation over the United Kingdom: A comparison of dynamical and statistical methods and their future scenarios. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1397–1415.
Hidalgo, H. G., M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan, 2008: Downscaling with constructed analogues: Daily precipitation and temperature fields over the United States. California Energy Commission, PIER Project Rep. CEC-500-2007-123, 48 pp.
Houze, R. A., Jr., C. N. James, and S. Medina, 2001: Radar observations of precipitation and airflow on the Mediterranean side of the Alps: Autumn 1998 and 1999. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 2537–2558.
Larson, V. E., and B. M. Griffin, 2013: Analytic upscaling of a local microphysics scheme. Part I: Derivation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 46–57.
Lin, Y.-L., S. Chiao, T. A. Wang, M. L. Kaplan, and R. P. Weglarz, 2001: Some common ingredients for heavy orographic rainfall. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 633–660.
Martius, O., E. Zenklusen, C. Schwierz, and H. Davies, 2006: Episodes of Alpine heavy precipitation with an overlying elongated stratospheric intrusion: A climatology. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1149–1164.
Massacand, A. C., H. Wernli, and H. C. Davies, 1998: Heavy precipitation on the Alpine south side: An upper-level precursor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1435–1438.
McCullagh, P., and J. A. Nelder, 1989: Generalized Linear Models. 2nd ed. Chapman and Hall, 511 pp.
Medina, S., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2003: Air motions and precipitation growth in Alpine storms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 345–371.
Panziera, L., and U. Germann, 2010: The relation between airflow and orographic precipitation on the southern side of the Alps as revealed by weather radar. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 222–238.
Pincus, R., and S. A. Klein, 2000: Unresolved spatial variability and microphysical process rates in large-scale models. J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D22), 27 059–27 065.
Rasmussen, R., and Coauthors, 2012: How well are we measuring snow? The NOAA/FAA/NCAR winter precipitation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 811–829.
Rotunno, R., and R. A. Houze, 2007: Lessons on orographic precipitation from the Mesoscale Alpine Programme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 811–830.
Rudari, R., D. Entekhabi, and G. Roth, 2004: Terrain and multiple-scale interactions as factors in generating extreme precipitation events. J. Hydrometeor., 5, 390–404.
Rudolph, J. V., and K. Friedrich, 2013: Seasonality of vertical structure in radar-observed precipitation over southern Switzerland. J. Hydrometeor., 14, 318–330.
Rudolph, J. V., K. Friedrich, and U. Germann, 2011: Relationship between radar-estimated precipitation and synoptic weather patterns in the European Alps. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 944–957.
Rudolph, J. V., K. Friedrich, and U. Germann, 2012: Model-based estimation of dynamic effect on twenty-first-century precipitation for Swiss river basins. J. Climate, 25, 2897–2913.
Seager, R., N. Naik, and G. A. Vecchi, 2010: Thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms for large-scale changes in the hydrological cycle in response to global warming. J. Climate, 23, 4651–4668.
Smith, R. B., Q. Jiang, M. G. Fearon, P. Tabary, M. Dorninger, J. D. Doyle, and R. Benoit, 2003: Orographic precipitation and air mass transformation: An Alpine example. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 433–454.
Stoner, A. M. K., K. Hayhoe, X. Yang, and D. J. Wuebbles, 2012: An asynchronous regional regression model for statistical downscaling of daily climate variables. Int. J. Climatol., 33, 2473–2494, doi:10.1002/joc.3603.
Venables, W., and B. Ripley, 1997: Modern Applied Statistics with S-Plus. 2nd ed. Springer, 548 pp.
Wilby, R. L., 1998: Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation using daily airflow and seasonal teleconnection indices. Climate Res., 10, 163–178, doi:10.3354/cr010163.
Wood, A. W., L. R. Leung, V. Sridhar, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2004: Hydrologic implications of dynamical and statistical approaches to downscaling climate model outputs. Climatic Change, 62, 189–216.
Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2003: Microphysical modes of precipitation growth determined by S-band vertically pointing radar in orographic precipitation during MAP. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 455–476.