This study was supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office Modeling Analysis Prediction and Projection Program, award NA11OAR4310085, and the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Program. The NCEP-R1 data are from the Research Data Archive (RDA), which is maintained by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The original data are available from the RDA (http://rda.ucar.edu) in dataset number ds090.0. NCEP-R2 data are provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their website (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). The 20th Century Reanalysis V2 data are provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their website (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/). The CFSR data were developed by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The data for this study are from NOAA’s National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS), which is maintained at NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The MERRA data were provided by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) and the GES DISC for the dissemination of MERRA. The ERA-Interim data are from the NCEP Research Data Archive (RDA) (rda.ucar.edu) in dataset number ds627.0. The JR-25 datasets used for this study are provided from the cooperative research project of the JRA-25 long-term reanalysis by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). ARM data are made available through the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The authors thank the reviewers for helpful and constructive comments.
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