This analysis was undertaken during doctoral studies of the first author, who thanks NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center for supporting his doctoral pursuit. Sumant Nigam gratefully acknowledges support of NSF Grant AGS1439940.
Baxter, S., and S. Nigam, 2013: A subseasonal teleconnection analysis: PNA development and its relationship to the NAO. J. Climate, 26, 6733–6741, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00426.1.
Chen, M., P. Xie, J. E. Janowiak, and P. A. Arkin, 2002: Global land precipitation: A 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeor., 3, 249–266, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0249:GLPAYM>2.0.CO;2.
Climate Prediction Center, 2012: Climate Diagnostics Bulletin. March 2012, 90 pp. [Available online at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/CDB/CDB_Archive_pdf/PDF/CDB.mar2012_color.pdf.]
Climate Prediction Center, 2014: Climate Diagnostics Bulletin. February 2014, 90 pp. [Available online at http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/CDB/CDB_Archive_pdf/PDF/CDB.feb2014_color.pdf.]
Di Lorenzo, E., and Coauthors, 2013: Synthesis of Pacific Ocean climate and ecosystem dynamics. Oceanography, 26, 68–81, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2013.76.
Furtado, J. C., E. Di Lorenzo, B. T. Anderson, and N. Schneider, 2012: Linkages between the North Pacific Oscillation and central tropical Pacific SSTs at low frequencies. Climate Dyn., 39, 2833–2846, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1245-4.
Hartmann, D. L., 2015: Pacific sea surface temperature and the winter of 2014. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1894–1902, doi:10.1002/2015GL063083.
Izadi, E., 2014: The Gulf of Alaska is unusually warm, and weird fish are showing up. Washington Post, 15 September 2014. [Available online at http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2014/09/15/the-gulf-of-alaska-is-unusually-warm-and-weird-fish-are-showing-up/.]
Lau, N.-C., 1979: The observed structure of tropospheric stationary waves and the local balances of vorticity and heat. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 996–1016, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0996:TOSOTS>2.0.CO;2.
Linkin, M. E., and S. Nigam, 2008: The North Pacific Oscillation–West Pacific teleconnection pattern: Mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J. Climate, 21, 1979–1997, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2048.1.
Mo, K., and R. Livezey, 1986: Tropical-extratropical geopotential height teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2488–2515, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<2488:TEGHTD>2.0.CO;2.
Nigam, S., 2003: Teleconnections. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton, J. A. Pyle, and J. A. Curry, Eds., Elsevier Science, 2243–2269.
Nigam, S., and S. Baxter, 2015: Teleconnections. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd ed. G. North, Ed., Elsevier Science, 90–109, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-382225-3.00400-X.
Saha, S., and Coauthors, 2010: The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1015–1057, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1.
Seager, R., M. Hoerling, S. Schubert, H. Wang, B. Lyon, A. Kumar, J. Nakamura, and N. Henderson, 2014: Causes and predictability of the 2011-14 California drought, Assessment Rep., NOAA, 40 pp. [Available online at http://cpo.noaa.gov/sites/cpo/MAPP/Task%20Forces/DTF/californiadrought/california_drought_report.pdf.]
Walker, G. T., 1924: Correlation in seasonal variations in weather IX: A further study of world weather. Mem. Indian Meteor. Dept., 24, 275–332.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784–812, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0784:TITGHF>2.0.CO;2.
The first-order NPO–WP temperature signal
A higher pentad correlation is obtained with T850 leading by one pentad. This results from the retrogression of the NPO–WP whose North American center attains peak amplitude in advance of other regions. The NPO–WP PC is, of course, keyed to the overall mature-phase structure. The T850 lead over the northern plains is, by no means, indicative of causality; see Fig. 5.