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On the Evolution of Thunderstorm Rotation

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  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307
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Abstract

A vertical velocity field is chosen which imitates that of the initial stages of cloud development as simulated numerically by Wilhelmson and Klemp (1978). Given this, an approximate version of the equation for the vertical component of the vorticity is solved. The vertical velocity is assumed to vary with height as sin πz/H where a is the altitude and H is the depth of the domain. At the level of nondivergence (z=H/2), the solutions indicate the development of a vortex pair which then splits into two vortex pairs one moving to the right of the mean wind and the other to the left (as observed in the numerical model). At lower levels, owing to the convergence in the updraft and divergence in the downdraft, the cyclonic/anticyclonic member of the vortex pair in the rightward/leftward moving storm is greatly enhanced. The vorticity maximum is initially on the maximum gradient of vertical velocity. At mid-levels the maximum vorticity migrates with time close to the position of maximum vertical velocity. However, at lower levels, the maximum vorticity migrates with time past the position of maximum vertical velocity and thereafter resides on the vertical velocity gradient separating updraft from downdraft, as observed in a number of case studies. Some general comparisons of the present theory with an observational case study are made.

Abstract

A vertical velocity field is chosen which imitates that of the initial stages of cloud development as simulated numerically by Wilhelmson and Klemp (1978). Given this, an approximate version of the equation for the vertical component of the vorticity is solved. The vertical velocity is assumed to vary with height as sin πz/H where a is the altitude and H is the depth of the domain. At the level of nondivergence (z=H/2), the solutions indicate the development of a vortex pair which then splits into two vortex pairs one moving to the right of the mean wind and the other to the left (as observed in the numerical model). At lower levels, owing to the convergence in the updraft and divergence in the downdraft, the cyclonic/anticyclonic member of the vortex pair in the rightward/leftward moving storm is greatly enhanced. The vorticity maximum is initially on the maximum gradient of vertical velocity. At mid-levels the maximum vorticity migrates with time close to the position of maximum vertical velocity. However, at lower levels, the maximum vorticity migrates with time past the position of maximum vertical velocity and thereafter resides on the vertical velocity gradient separating updraft from downdraft, as observed in a number of case studies. Some general comparisons of the present theory with an observational case study are made.

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