This paper is dedicated to the great tropical meteorologist Herbert Riehl. Much of his work forms the foundation of this and other tropical research today. This research has been partially supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N000014-94-1-049. The NASA effort was supported by Goddard Task 460-23-54-20 from Dr. Ramesh Kakar with the Mission to Planet Earth. The mission could not have been carried out without Ed Zipser, who coordinated both DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft on an optimum path through the key vortices of the developing storm. Gerald Mace of the Pennsylvania State University provided valuable analyses of the DC-8 dropwinsonde data. We would also like to thank Mr. Ross Keith of the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia, for recording the Willis Island radar and rawinsondes especially for this study. The staff of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center on Guam, especially Mark Lander and Frank Wells, have been helpful in providing data relevant to Supertyphoon Ed (1993) and Typhoon Irving (1992). We are grateful to Hal Pierce and Tricia Gregory for generous help with the color figures. Last but by no means least, we are deeply grateful to Dr. R. H. Simpson for sharing with us his vast experience in hurricane research, forecasting, and aircraft flight experience from many storms.
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