This research project is partially supported by the Network for Computing and Mathematical Modeling, a multiuniversity initiative founded by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. The project is also supported by a NSERC Strategic Project award (Simulation of Severe Precipitation and Flash Floods).
Avissar, R., and R. A. Pielke, 1989: A parameterization of heterogeneous land surface for atmospheric numerical models and its impact on regional meteorology. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 2113–2136.
Beljaars, A. C. M., P. Viterbo, M. J. Miller, and A. K. Betts, 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993:Sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev.,124, 362–383.
Benoit, R., M. Desgagné, P. Pellerin, S. Pellerin, Y. Chartier, and S. Desjardins, 1997: A semi-Lagrangian, semi-implicit wide-band atmospheric model suited for finescale process studies and simulation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 2382–2415.
Bouttier, F., J.-F. Mahfouf, and J. Noilhan, 1993: Sequential assimilation of soil moisture from atmospheric low-level parameters. Part II: Implementation in a mesoscale model. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 1352–1364.
Chen, T. H., and Coauthors, 1997: Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes. J. Climate,10, 1194–1215.
Clapp, R. B., and G. M. Hornberger, 1978: Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res.,14, 601–604.
Deardorff, J. W., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res.,83 (C4), 1889–1903.
Delage, Y., and D. Verseghy, 1995: Testing the effects of a new land surface scheme and of initial soil moisture conditions in the Canadian Global Forecast Model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3305–3317.
——, L. Wen, and J.-M. Bélanger, 1999: Aggregation of parameters for the land surface model CLASS. Atmos.–Ocean,37, 157–178.
Ducoudré, N. I., K. Laval, and A. Perrier, 1993: SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land–atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate,6, 248–273.
Gal-Chen, T., and R. C. J. Sommerville, 1975: On the use of a co-ordinate transformation for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. J. Comput. Phys.,17, 209–228.
Garratt, J. R., 1993: Sensitivity of climate simulations to land-surface and atmospheric boundary-layer treatments—A review. J. Climate,6, 419–449.
Grassotti, C., and L. Garand, 1994: Classification-based rainfall estimation using satellite data and numerical forecast model fields. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 159–178.
Henderson-Sellers, A., Z. L. Yang, and R. E. Dickinson, 1993: The Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,74, 1335–1349.
Koster, R. D., and M. Suarez, 1992: Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 2697–2715.
Krishnamurti, T. N., H. S. Bedi, G. D. Rohaly, D. K. Oosterhof, R. C. Torres, and E. Williford, 1997: Physical initialization. Numerical Methods in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling, C. A. Lin, R. Laprise, and H. Ritchie, Eds., NRC Research Press, 369–398.
Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies on the parameterization of the influence of cumulus convection on large-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1232–1240.
Mailhot, J., R. Sarrazin, B. Bilodeau, N. Brunet, and G. Pellerin, 1997: Development of the 35-km version of the Canadian regional forecast system. Atmos.–Ocean,35, 1–28.
Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation: The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth’s surface. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 739–805.
Milly, P. C. D., and K. A. Dunne, 1994: Sensitivity of the global water cycle to the water-holding capacity of land. J. Climate,7, 506–526.
Mintz, Y., 1984: The sensitivity of numerically simulated climates to land-surface boundary conditions. The Global Climate, J. Houghton, Ed., Cambridge University Press, 79–105.
Nobre, C. A., P. J. Sellers, and J. Shukla, 1991: Amazonian deforestation and regional climate change. J. Climate,4, 957–988.
Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 536–549.
——, and P. Lacarrère, 1995: GCM grid-scale evaporation from mesoscale modeling. J. Climate,8, 206–223.
Oglesby, R. J., 1991: Springtime soil moisture variability, and North American drought as simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model I. J. Climate,4, 890–897.
Rosenzeig, C., and F. Abramopoulos, 1997: Land-surface model development for the GISS GCM. J. Climate,10, 2040–2054.
Rowntree, P. R., and J. A. Bolton, 1983: Simulation of the atmospheric response to soil moisture anomalies over Europe. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,109, 501–526.
Sellers, P. J., Y. Mintz, Y. C. Sud, and A. Dalcher, 1986: A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 505–531.
——, D. A. Randall, C. J. Collatz, J. A. Berry, C. B. Field, D. A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, and G. C. Collelo, 1996: A revised land surface parameterization (SiB) for atmospheric GCMs. Part I: Model formulation. J. Climate,9, 676–705.
Shao, Y. P., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1996: Modelling soil moisture:A Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase 2(b). J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7227–7250.
Sundqvist, H., 1978: A parameterization scheme for non-convective condensation including prediction of cloud water content. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,104, 677–690.
Tanguay, M., A. Robert, and R. Laprise, 1990: A semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian fully compressible regional forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1970–1980.
Thomas, S. J., C. Girard, R. Benoit, M. Desgagné, and P. Pellerin, 1998: A new adiabatic kernel for the MC2 model. Atmos.–Ocean,36, 241–270.
Verseghy, D. L., 1991: CLASS—A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMS. I. Soil model. Int. J. Climatol.,11, 111–133.
——, N. A. McFarlane, and M. Lazare, 1993: CLASS—A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMS. II. Vegetation model and coupled runs. Int. J. Climatol.,13, 347–370.
Wen, L., J. Gallichand, A. A. Viau, Y. Delage, and R. Benoit, 1998:Calibration of the CLASS model and its improvement under agricultural conditions. Trans. ASAE,41, 1345–1351.
Wood, E. F., D. P. Lettenmaier, and V. Zartarian, 1992: A land surface hydrology parameterization with sub-grid variability for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.,97 (D3), 2717–2728.
Yang, Z.-L., and R. E. Dickinson, 1996: Description of the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) for the soil moisture workshop and evaluation of its performance. Global Planet. Change,13, 117–134.
——, ——, A. Henderson-Sellers, and A. J. Pitman, 1995: Preliminary study of spin-up processes in land surface models with the first stage data of Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes Phase 1(a). J. Geophys. Res.,100 (D8), 16 553–16 578.
Yu, W., C. Lin, and R. Benoit, 1997: High resolution simulation of the severe precipitation over Saguenay, Québec region in July 1996. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 1952–1954.
——, ——, ——, and I. Zawadzki, 1998: High resolution model simulation of precipitation and evaluation with Doppler radar observation. Water. Sci. Technol.,37, 179–186.