This work was supported by NASA Grant NAG5-4375 (for an EOS Interdisciplinary Investigation, Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface) and Grant NAG5-9334 (for an EOS Interdisciplinary Investigation, The Role of Polar Oceans in Contemporary Climate Change). Additional funding was provided by NSF Grant ATM-9905846. We thank B. Dushaw, A. Schweiger, and M. Ortmeyer for assistance in parallel computing; D. Morison for working on the model configuration in a GOCC system; B. Briegleb and R. Moritz for helpful discussions; D. Holland for providing the global bathymetry data; and Y. Yu for providing the submarine ice thickness data.
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