The authors thank Roger Edson at the University of Guam for his track analysis of Hurricane Catarina. We also extend our thanks to Chris Velden of SSEC for the provision of the 1974 satellite data and for extensive discussions thereof. The comments of two anonymous reviewers assisted in finalizing the manuscript. This work was supported by NSF Grant ATM0304254, the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences, and the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.
Billing, H., I. Haupt, and W. Tonn, 1983: Evolution of a hurricane-like cyclone in the Mediterranean Sea. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 56 , 508–510.
Bister, M., and K. A. Emanuel, 1997: The genesis of Hurricane Guillermo: TEXMEX analyses and a modeling study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 2662–2682.
Bosart, L. F., and G. M. Lackmann, 1995: Postlandfall tropical cyclone reintensification in a weakly baroclinic environment: A case study of Hurricane David (September 1979). Mon. Wea. Rev., 123 , 3268–3291.
DeMaria, M., J. A. Knaff, and B. H. Connell, 2001: A tropical cyclone genesis parameter for the tropical Atlantic. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 219–233.
Holland, G. J., 1983: Tropical Cyclones in the Australian/Southwest Pacific Region. Colorado State University, 264 pp.
Holland, G. J., A. H. Lynch, and L. M. Leslie, 1987: Australian east-coast cyclones. Part I: Synoptic overview and case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 3024–3036.
Koch, P., 2004: Novel perspectives of jet-stream climatologies and events of heavy precipitation on the alpine southside. Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland, 217 pp.
Le Marshall, J. F., and G. A. M. Kelly, 1981: A January and July climatology of the Southern Hemisphere based on daily numerical analyses 1973–1977. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 29 , 115–123.
Marcelino, I. P. V. O., S. M. Saito, E. V. Marcelino, R. F. Goerl, and G. S. F. Molleri, 2004: Análise dos quesionários aplicados nas comunidades catarinenses mais atingidas pelo Ciclone Catarina. Simpósio Brasileiro de Desastres Naturais, Vol. 1, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, 719–733.
McAdie, C. J., and E. N. Rappaport, 1991: Diagnostic report of the National Hurricane Center. NOAA Tech. Rep. 4 (1), National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, FL, 45 pp.
Morgan, M. C., and J. W. Nielsen-Gammon, 1998: Using tropopause maps to diagnose midlatitude weather systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2555–2579.
Pezza, A. B., and I. Simmonds, 2005: The first South Atlantic hurricane: Unprecedented blocking, low shear and climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L15712, doi:10.1029/2005GL023390.
Reale, O., and R. Atlas, 2001: Tropical cyclone-like vortices in the extratropics: Observational evidence and synoptic analysis. Wea. Forecasting, 16 , 7–34.
Renard, R. J., 1968: Forecasting the motion of tropical cyclones using numerically derived steering current and its bias. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96 , 453–469.
Renwick, J. A., and M. J. Revell, 1999: Blocking over the South Pacific and Rossby wave propagation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 2233–2247.
Rex, D. F., 1950a: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. I. An aerological study of blocking action. Tellus, 2 , 196–211.
Rex, D. F., 1950b: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. II. The climatology of blocking action. Tellus, 2 , 275–301.
Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 1609–1625.
Schade, L. R., and K. A. Emanuel, 1999: The ocean’s effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: Results from a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 642–651.
Sinclair, M. R., 1997: Objective identification of cyclones and their circulation intensity, and climatology. Wea. Forecasting, 12 , 595–612.
Smith, T. M., and R. W. Reynolds, 1998: A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology for the 1961–90 base period. J. Climate, 11 , 3320–3323.
Wright, A. D. F., 1974: Blocking action in the Australian region. Australian Bureau of Meteorology Tech. Rep. 10, 29 pp. [Available from the Bureau of Meteorology, G.P.O. Box 1289K, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.].
Zehr, R. M., 1992: Tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific. NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 61, NOAA/NESDIS, 181 pp.