The authors wish to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. Resources made available through NCAR’s Scientific Computing Division and Purdue University’s Rosen Center for Advanced Computing were used to generate the WRF model simulations. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, under Grant ATM-023344 (DMW and RJT), and by a Bilsland Dissertation Fellowship (DMW).
Atkins, N. T., M. L. Weisman, and L. J. Wicker, 1999: The influence of preexisting boundaries on supercell evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 2910–2927.
Atkins, N. T., J. M. Arnott, R. W. Przybylinski, R. A. Wolf, and B. D. Ketcham, 2004: Vortex structure and evolution within bow echoes. Part I: Single-Doppler and damage analysis of the 29 June 1998 derecho. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2224–2242.
Atkins, N. T., C. S. Bouchard, R. W. Przybylinski, R. J. Trapp, and G. Schmocker, 2005: Damaging surface wind mechanisms within the 10 June 2003 Saint Louis bow echo during BAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 2275–2296.
Balaji, V., and T. L. Clark, 1988: Scale selection in locally forced convective fields and the initiation of deep cumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 3188–3211.
Bernardet, L. R., and W. R. Cotton, 1998: Multiscale evolution of a derecho-producing mesoscale convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2991–3015.
Brady, R. H., and E. J. Szoke, 1989: A case study of nonmesocyclone tornado development in northeast Colorado: Similarities to waterspout formation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 843–856.
Burgess, D. W., and B. F. Smull, 1990: Doppler radar observations of a bow echo associated with a long-track severe windstorm. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, AB, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 203–208.
Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model description and implementation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 569–585.
Coniglio, M. C., and D. J. Stensrud, 2001: Simulation of a progressive derecho using composite initial conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 1593–1616.
Davies-Jones, R. P., 1982a: A new look at the vorticity equation with application to tornadogenesis. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 249–252.
Davies-Jones, R. P., 1982b: Observational and theoretical aspect of tornadogenesis. Intense Atmospheric Vortices, L. Bengtsson and J. Lighthill, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 175–189.
Davies-Jones, R. P., and H. E. Brook, 1993: Mesocyclogenesis from a theoretical perspective. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 105–114.
Davis, C., and Coauthors, 2004: The Bow Echo and MCV Experiment: Observations and opportunities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 1075–1093.
Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 3077–3107.
Jorgensen, D. P., and B. F. Smull, 1993: Mesovortex circulations seen by airborne Doppler radar within a bow-echo mesoscale convective system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 2146–2157.
Klimowski, B. A., R. Przybylinski, G. Schmocker, and M. R. Hjelmfelt, 2000: Observations of the formation and early evolution of bow echoes. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 44–47.
Lee, B. D., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1997a: The numerical simulation of nonsupercell tornadogenesis. Part I: Initiation and evolution of pretornadic misocyclone circulations along a dry outflow boundary. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 32–60.
Lee, B. D., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1997b: The numerical simulation of nonsupercell tornadogenesis. Part II: Evolution of a family of tornadoes along a weak outflow boundary. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 2387–2415.
Maddox, R. A., L. R. Hoxit, and C. F. Chappell, 1980: A study of tornadic thunderstorm interactions with thermal boundaries. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 322–336.
Markowski, P. M., E. N. Rasmussen, and J. M. Straka, 1998: The occurrence of tornadoes in supercells interacting with boundaries during VORTEX-95. Wea. Forecasting, 13 , 852–859.
Mlawer, E. J., S. J. Taubman, P. D. Brown, M. J. Iacono, and S. A. Clough, 1997: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , D14. 16663–16682.
NCDC, 2001: Storm Data. Vol. 43, No. 10, 172 pp. [Available from National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801-5001.].
NCDC, 2003: Storm Data. Vol. 45, No. 7, 478 pp. [Available from National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801-5001.].
Noh, Y., W. G. Cheon, S-Y. Hong, and S. Raasch, 2003: Improvement of the K-profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 107 , 401–427.
Przybylinski, R. W., G. K. Schmocker, and Y-J. Lin, 2000: A study of storm and vortex morphology during the “intensifying stage” of severe wind mesoscale convective systems. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–176.
Rasmussen, E. N., J. M. Straka, R. P. Davies-Jones, C. A. Doswell III, F. H. Carr, M. D. Eilts, and D. R. MacGorman, 1994: The Verifications of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment: VORTEX. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75 , 997–1006.
Richardson, Y. P., K. K. Droegemeier, and R. P. Davies-Jones, 2007: The influence of horizontal environmental variability on numerically simulated convective storms. Part I: Variations in vertical shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 3429–3455.
Rotunno, R., and J. B. Klemp, 1985: On the rotation and propagation of simulated supercell thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 271–292.
Schmocker, G. K., R. W. Przybylinski, and E. N. Rasmussen, 2000: The severe bow echo event of 14 June 1998 over the mid-Mississippi Valley region: A case of vortex development near the intersection of a preexisting boundary and a convective line. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 169–172.
Skamarock, W. C., M. L. Weisman, and J. B. Klemp, 1994: Three-dimensional evolution of simulated long-lived squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 2563–2584.
Skamarock, W. C., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. M. Barker, W. Wang, and J. G. Powers, 2005: A description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 2. NCAR Tech. Note TN-468+STR, 88 pp.
Thorpe, A. J., M. J. Miller, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1982: Two-dimensional convection in non-constant shear: A model of mid-latitude squall lines. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108 , 739–762.
Trapp, R. J., and M. L. Weisman, 2003: Low-level mesovortices within squall lines and bow echoes. Part II: Their genesis and implications. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2804–2823.
Wakimoto, R. M., H. V. Murphey, C. A. Davis, and N. T. Atkins, 2006: High winds generated by bow echoes. Part II: The relationship between the mesovortices and damaging straight-line winds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 2813–2829.
Weisman, M. L., 1992: The role of convectively generated rear-inflow jets in the evolution of long-lived mesoconvective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 1826–1847.
Weisman, M. L., and C. Davis, 1998: Mechanisms for the generation of mesoscale vortices within quasi-linear convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 2603–2622.
Weisman, M. L., and R. J. Trapp, 2003: Low-level mesovortices within squall lines and bow echoes. Part I: Overview and dependence on environmental shear. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 2779–2803.
Weisman, M. L., W. C. Skamarock, and J. B. Klemp, 1997: The resolution dependence of explicitly modeled convective systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 527–548.
Wheatley, D. M., R. J. Trapp, and N. T. Atkins, 2006: Radar and damage analysis of severe bow echoes observed during BAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 791–806.