The authors thank the flight crews of the NOAA/Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) who fly and maintain the two WP-3D aircraft. Without their skill and dedication, this dataset could not be analyzed. In particular we thank the LA flight crew on this flight: pilots Gerry McKim and Lowell Genzlinger, engineer Steve Wade, navigator Sean White, flight director Jeff Masters, and project manager Jim McFadden for their skill and professionalism. Without it, we would not be here to analyze this dataset. We also thank the AOC electrical engineers and technicians who maintained the aircraft instrumentation during this flight: in particular, Terry Schricker and Alan Goldstein. Without their skill and professionalism, this dataset would not exist. Jim DuGranrut, the former Deputy Director at AOC, helped with the postprocessing of the flight-level data by augmenting the flight-level 1-Hz aircraft attitude information using the 50-Hz information stored on the aircraft radar tapes. We thank fellow scientists from the Hurricane Research Division who were on the flight with us: in particular, Hugh Willoughby and Peter Dodge. Their skill and professionalism were instrumental in the collection of this dataset. We also thank the UA and AFA flight crews who came to our rescue and ably guided us out of the storm and back to base. Last, we thank Wayne Schubert, Jim Kossin, Paul Reasor, and Hugh Willoughby for their encouragement and constructive comments on earlier drafts of this paper. MTM was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grants ATM-0715426 and ATM-0649944, the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, and NOAA/AOML’s Hurricane Research Division. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our coauthor, good friend, and colleague Robert W. Burpee, who died in July 2007, and to that of our close friend and engineer Terry Schricker, who died in June 2007.
Aberson, S. D., M. T. Montgomery, M. Bell, and M. Black, 2006: Hurricane Isabel (2003): New insights into the physics of intense storms. Part II: Extreme localized wind. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87 , 1349–1354.
Black, M. L., R. W. Burpee, and F. D. Marks, 1996: Vertical motion characteristics of tropical cyclones determined with airborne Doppler radial velocities. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 1887–1909.
Black, P. G., and F. D. Marks, 1991: The structure of an eyewall meso-vortex in Hurricane Hugo (1989). Preprints. 19th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 579–582.
Bluestein, H. B., and F. D. Marks, 1987: On the structure of the eyewall of Hurricane Diana (1984): Comparison of radar and visual characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 2542–2552.
Fiedler, B., 1998: Wind-speed limits in numerically simulated tornadoes with suction vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 2377–2392.
Finn, J. M., D. del-Castillo-Negrete, and D. C. Barnes, 1999: Compressional effects in non-neutral plasmas, a shallow water analogy and m = 1 instability. Phys. Plasmas, 6 , 3744–3758.
Fletcher, R. D., J. R. Smith, and R. C. Bundgaard, 1961: Superior photographic reconnaissance of tropical cyclones. Weatherwise, 14 , 102–109.
Franklin, J. L., M. L. Black, and K. Valde, 2003: GPS dropwindsonde wind profiles in hurricanes and their operational implications. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 32–44.
Fujita, T. T., 1971: Proposed mechanism of suction spots accompanied by tornadoes. Preprints, Seventh Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kansas City, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 208–213.
Hasler, A. F., K. Palaniappan, C. Kambhammetu, P. Black, E. Uhlhorn, and D. Chesters, 1998: High-resolution wind fields within the inner core and eye of a mature tropical cyclone from GOES 1-min images. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 2483–2496.
Holliday, C. R., and A. H. Thompson, 1979: Climatological characteristics of rapidly intensifying typhoons. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107 , 1022–1034.
Jorgensen, D. P., 1984a: Mesoscale and convective-scale characteristics of mature hurricanes. Part I: General observations by research aircraft. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 1268–1285.
Jorgensen, D. P., 1984b: Mesoscale and convective-scale characteristics of mature hurricanes. Part II: Inner core structure of Hurricane Allen (1980). J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 1287–1311.
Kepert, J. D., and G. J. Holland, 1997: The Northwest Cape tropical cyclone boundary layer monitoring station. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Ft. Collins, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82–83.
Kossin, J. P., and W. H. Schubert, 2001: Mesovortices, polygonal flow patterns, and rapid pressure falls in hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 2196–2209.
Lee, W-C., F. D. Marks, and R. Carbone, 1994: Velocity track display—A technique to extract real-time tropical cyclone circulations using a single airborne Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11 , 337–356.
Mallen, K. J., M. T. Montgomery, and B. Wang, 2005: Reexamining the near-core radial structure of the tropical cyclone primary circulation: Implications for vortex resiliency. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 408–425.
Marks, F. D., and R. A. Houze, 1984: Airborne Doppler radar observations in Hurricane Debby. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65 , 569–582.
Marks, F. D., and R. A. Houze, 1987: Inner core structure of Hurricane Alicia from airborne Doppler radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 1296–1317.
Marks, F. D., and P. G. Black, 1990: Close encounter with an intense mesoscale vortex within Hurricane Hugo (September 15, 1989). Extended Abstracts, Fourth Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Boulder, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 114–115.
Marks, F. D., R. A. Houze, and J. F. Gamache, 1992: Dual-aircraft investigation of the inner core of Hurricane Norbert. Part I: Kinematic structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 919–942.
Montgomery, M. T., and R. J. Kallenbach, 1997: A theory for vortex Rossby waves and its application to spiral bands and intensity changes in hurricanes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 435–465.
Montgomery, M. T., J. M. Hidalgo, and P. D. Reasor, 2000: A semi-spectral numerical method for modeling the vorticity dynamics of the near-core of hurricane-like vortices. Atmospheric Science Paper 695, Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, 56 pp.
Montgomery, M. T., V. A. Vladimirov, and P. V. Denissenko, 2002: An experimental study on hurricane mesovortices. J. Fluid Mech., 471 , 1–32.
Montgomery, M. T., M. M. Bell, S. D. Aberson, and M. L. Black, 2006: Hurricane Isabel (2003): New insights into the physics of intense storms. Part I: Mean vortex structure and maximum intensity estimates. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87 , 1335–1347.
Morrison, I., S. Businger, F. D. Marks, P. P. Dodge, and J. Businger, 2005: An observational case for the prevalence of roll vortices in the hurricane boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 2662–2673.
Nolan, D. S., and M. T. Montgomery, 2000: The algebraic growth of wavenumber one disturbances in hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 3514–3538.
Nolan, D. S., M. T. Montgomery, and L. D. Grasso, 2001: The wavenumber-one instability and trochoidal motion of hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 3243–3270.
Roux, F., and F. D. Marks, 1996: Extended Velocity Track Display (EVTD): An improved processing method for Doppler radar observations of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13 , 875–899.
Schecter, D. A., and M. T. Montgomery, 2006: Conditions that inhibit the spontaneous radiation of spiral inertia–gravity waves from an intense mesoscale cyclone. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 435–456.
Schubert, W. H., M. T. Montgomery, R. K. Taft, T. A. Guinn, S. R. Fulton, J. P. Kossin, and J. P. Edwards, 1999: Polygonal eyewalls, asymmetric eye contraction, and potential vorticity mixing in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1197–1223.
Smith, R. A., and M. N. Rosenbluth, 1990: Algebraic instability of hollow electron columns and cylindrical vortices. Phys. Rev. Lett., 64 , 649–652.
Willoughby, H. E., and M. B. Chelmow, 1982: Objective determination of hurricane tracks from aircraft observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 1298–1305.
Willoughby, H. E., and P. G. Black, 1996: Hurricane Andrew in Florida: Dynamics of a disaster. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 543–549.
Willoughby, H. E., J. A. Clos, and M. G. Shoreibah, 1982: Concentric eye walls, secondary wind maxima, and the evolution of the hurricane vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 395–411.
Wilson, K. J., 1979: Characteristics of the subcloud layer wind structure in tropical cyclones. Extended Abstracts, Int. Conf. on Tropical Cyclones, Perth, Australia, Roy. Meteor. Soc. (Australian Branch), 15II.
Wurman, J., and J. Winslow, 1998: Intense sub-kilometer-scale boundary layer rolls observed in Hurricane Fran. Science, 280 , 555–557.