The authors are grateful to Prof. H. Uyeda, Dr. T. Shinoda, and Mr. M. Kato of the Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center at Nagoya University for their valuable suggestions and support. We thank Prof. T. Hayashi of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute at Kyoto University, Dr. F. Murata at Kochi University, and Dr. M. N. Islam of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, for providing the data. The employed satellite images and satellite-based data were collected from the Naval Research Lab (NRL) tropical cyclone web page. We used the supercomputer at Nagoya University to perform the numerical simulation. The Grid Analysis and Display System software (GrADS) was used for analytical purposes and displaying figures. The authors acknowledge all anonymous reviewers of this paper for their thoughtful reviews.
Akter, N., and K. Tsuboki, 2010: Characteristics of supercells in the rainband of numerically simulated Cyclone Sidr. SOLA, 6A, 25–28.
Alam, Md. M., Md. A. Hossain, and S. Shafee, 2003: Frequency of Bay of Bengal cyclonic storms and depressions crossing different coastal zones. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 1119–1125.
Baker, A. K., M. D. Parker, and M. D. Eastin, 2009: Environmental ingredients for supercells and tornadoes within Hurricane Ivan. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 223–244.
Barnes, G. M., E. J. Zipser, D. P. Jorgensen, and F. D. Marks Jr., 1983: Mesoscale and convective structure of a hurricane rainband. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2125–2137.
Barnes, G. M., J. F. Gamache, M. A. LeMone, and G. J. Stossmeister, 1991: A convective cell in a hurricane rainband. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 776–794.
Beckman, S. K., 1990: A study of 12-h NGM low-level moisture flux convergence centers and the location of severe thunderstorms/heavy rain. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78–83.
Chan, J. C. L., 2000: Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific associated with El Niño and La Niña events. J. Climate, 13, 997–1004.
Chang, C.-P., P. A. Harr, and H. J. Chen, 2005: Synoptic disturbances over the equatorial South China Sea and western Maritime Continent during boreal winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 489–503.
Chen, T.-C., S.-P. Weng, N. Yamazaki, and S. Kiehne, 1998: Interannual variation in the tropical cyclone formation over the western North Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1080–1090.
Chen, T.-C., S.-Y. Wang, M.-C. Yen, and W. A. Gallus Jr., 2004: Role of the monsoon gyre in the interannual variation of tropical cyclone formation over the western North Pacific. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 776–785.
Cheung, N. K. W., 2006: The roles of ENSO on the occurrence of abruptly recurving tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific Basin. Adv. Geosci., 6, 139–148.
Choudhury, A. M., 1994: Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO. Proc. Int. Conf. on Monsoon Variability and Prediction, WCRP-84, WMO/TD-619, Vol. 1, Trieste, Italy, ICTP, 136–145.
Dengler, K., and D. Keyser, 2000: Intensification of tropical-cyclone like vortices in uniform zonal background-flows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 549–568.
Didlake, A. C. Jr., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2009: Convective-scale downdrafts in the principal rainband of Hurricane Katrina (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3269–3293.
Diercks, J. W., and R. A. Anthes, 1976: Diagnostic studies of spiral rain bands in a nonlinear hurricane model. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 959–975.
Eastin, M. D., T. L. Gardner, M. C. Link, and K. C. Smith, 2012: Surface cold pools in the outer rainbands of Tropical Storm Hanna (2008) near landfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 471–491.
Engerer, N. A., D. J. Strensrud, and M. C. Coniglio, 2008: Surface characteristics of observed cold pools. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 4839–4849.
Harr, P. A., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: Monsoon impacts on tropical cyclone variability. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, C.-P. Chang, B. Wang, and N.-C. G. Lau, Eds., WMO, 512–542.
Hasegawa, K., 2008: Features of super cyclone Sidr to hit Bangladesh in Nov 07 and measures for disaster from results of JSCE investigation. Proc. WFEO-JFES-JSCE Joint Int. Symp. on Disaster Risk Management, Sendai, Japan, Science Council of Japan, 51–58.
Hence, D. A., and R. A. Houze Jr., 2008: Kinematic structure of convective-scale elements in the rainbands of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005). J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15108, doi:10.1029/2007JD009429.
Houze, R. A. Jr., S. G. Geotis, F. D.Marks, and A. K. West, 1981: Winter monsoon convection in the vicinity of North Borneo. Part I: Structure and time variation of the clouds and precipitation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 1595–1614.
Ishihara, M., Z. Yanagisawa, H. Sakakibara, K. Matsuura, and J. Aoyagi, 1986: Structure of a typhoon rainband observed by two Doppler radars. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 64, 923–939.
Kepert, J. D., 2001: The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part I: Linear theory. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2469–2484.
Koch, S. E., and J. McCarthy, 1982: The evolution of an Oklahoma dryline. Part II: Boundary-layer forcing of mesoconvective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 237–257.
Krishna, K. M., 2008: Intensifying tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean during summer monsoon—Global warming. Global Planet. Change, 65, 12–16.
Kwok, H. Y., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The influence of uniform flow on tropical cyclone intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3193–3212.
L’Heureux, M., 2008: An overview of the 2007-08 La Niña and boreal wintertime variability. Extended Abstracts, 33rd NOAA Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, Lincoln, NE, Science and Technology Infusion Climate Bulletin, 1–8.
Liu, A. Q., G. W. K. Moore, K. Tsuboki, and I. A. Renfrew, 2004: A high resolution simulation of convective roll clouds during a cold-air outbreak. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03101, doi:10.1029/2003GL018530.
Louis, J. F., M. Tiedtke, and J. F. Geleyn, 1981: A short history of the operational PBL parameterization at ECMWF. Proc. ECMWF Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 59–79.
Maesaka, T., G. W. K. Moore, Q. Liu, and K. Tsuboki, 2006: A simulation of a lake effect snowstorm with a cloud resolving numerical model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20813, doi:10.1029/2006GL026638.
May, P. T., and G. J. Holland, 1999: The role of potential vorticity generation in tropical cyclone rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1224–1228.
McCaul, E. W., Jr., and M. L.Weisman, 1996: Simulations of shallow supercell storms in landfalling hurricane environments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 408–429.
McCaul, E. W., Jr., and M. L. Weisman, 2001: The sensitivity of simulated supercell structure and intensity to variations in the shapes of environmental buoyancy and shear profiles. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 664–687.
Mukhopadhyay, P., and S. C. Dutta, 2007: A reconnaissance based vulnerability and damage survey report at the Sagar Island, West Bengal: Effect of the Cyclone Sidr of 15th November, 2007. Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India, 22 pp.
Murata, A., K. Saito, and M. Ueno, 2003: The effects of precipitation schemes and horizontal resolution on the major rainband in typhoon Flo (1990) predicted by the MRI mesoscale nonhydrostatic model. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 82, 55–73.
Nasuno, T., and M. Yamasaki, 1997: The effect of surface friction on the mesoscale organization of cumulus convection in tropical cyclones. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75, 907–924.
Negri, A. J., and T. H. Vonder Haar, 1980: Moisture convergence using satellite-derived wind fields: A severe local storm case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1170–1182.
Ohigashi, T., and K. Tsuboki, 2007: Shift and intensification processes of the Japan-Sea Polar-Airmass Convergence Zone associated with the passage of a mid-tropospheric cold core. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85, 633–662.
Ostby, F. P., 1975: An application of severe storm forecast techniques to the outbreak of June 8, 1974. Preprints, Ninth Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Norman, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 7–12.
Peng, M. S., B.-F. Jeng, and R. T. Williams, 1999: A numerical study on tropical cyclone intensification. Part I: Beta effect and mean flow effect. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1404–1423.
Powell, M. D., 1990a: Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane rainbands. Part I: Mesoscale rainfall and kinematic structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 891–917.
Powell, M. D., 1990b: Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane rainbands. Part II: Downdraft modification and mixed layer recovery. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 918–938.
Roca, R., and V. Ramanathan, 2000: Scale dependence of monsoonal convective systems over the Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 13, 1286–1298.
Rogash, J. A., and R. D. Smith, 2000: Multiscale overview of a violent tornado outbreak with attendant flash flooding. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 416–431.
Ryan, B. F., G. M. Barnes, and E. J. Zipser, 1992: A wide rainband in a developing tropical cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 431–447.
Sakurai, T., K. Yukio, and T. Kuragano, 2005: Merged satellite and in-situ data global daily SST. Proc. IGARSS 2005 IEEE Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp., Vol. 4, Seoul, South Korea, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, 2606–2608.
Senn, H. V., H. W. Hiser, and R. C. Bourret, 1957: Studies of hurricane spiral bands as observed on radar. Final Rep., U.S. Weather Bureau, Contract Cwb-9066, University of Miami, 21 pp.
Shaik, H. A., and S. J. Cleland, 2008: The tropical circulation in the Australian/Asian region – November 2007 to April 2008. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 55, 367–378.
Shankar, D., P. N. Vinayachandran, A. S. Unnikrishnan, and S. R. Shetye, 2002: The monsoon currents in the north Indian Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 52, 63–119.
Shimazu, Y., 1997: Wide slow-moving rainbands and narrow fast-moving rainbands observed in Typhoon 8913. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75, 67–80.
Singh, O. P., T. M. Ali Khan, and Md. S. Rahman, 2000: Changes in the frequency of tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 75, 11–20.
Skwira, G. D., J. L. Schroeder, and R. E. Peterson, 2005: Surface observations of landfalling hurricane rainbands. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 454–465.
Tabata, A., H. Sakakibara, M. Ishihara, K. Matsuura, and Z. Yanagisawa, 1992: A general view of the structure of typhoon 8514 observed by dual-Doppler radar—From outer rainbands to eyewall clouds. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70, 897–917.
Tsuboki, K., and A. Sakakibara, 2002: Large-scale parallel computing of cloud resolving storm simulator. High Performance Computing, H. P. Zima et al., Eds., Springer, 243–259.
Tsuboki, K., and A. Sakakibara, 2007: Numerical prediction of high-impact weather systems—The text book for Seventeenth IHP training course in 2007. HyARC, Nagoya University, Japan, and UNESCO, 273 pp.
Ulanski, S. L., and M. Garstang, 1978: The role of surface divergence and vorticity in the life cycle of convective rainfall. Part I: Observation and analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1047–1062.
van Zomeren, J., and A. van Delden, 2007: Vertically integrated moisture flux convergence as a predictor of thunderstorms. Atmos. Res., 83, 435–445.
Wang, B., and J. C. L. Chan, 2002: How strong ENSO events affect tropical storm activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 1643–1657.
Wang, C.-C., G.T.-J. Chen, T.-C. Chen, and K. Tsuboki, 2005: A numerical study on the effects of Taiwan topography on a convective line during the mei-yu season. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 3217–3242.
Wang, Y., 2002a: Vortex Rossby waves in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. Part II: The role in tropical cyclone structure and intensity changes. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1239–1262.
Wang, Y., 2002b: An explicit simulation of tropical cyclones with a triply nested movable mesh primitive equation model: TCM3. Part II: Model refinements and sensitivity to cloud microphysics parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 3022–3036.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1984: The structure and classification of numerically simulated convective storms in directionally varying wind shears. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 2479–2498.
Willoughby, H. E., J. A. Clos, and M. G. Shoreibah, 1982: Concentric eyewalls, secondary wind maxima, and the evolution of the hurricane vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 395–411.
Willoughby, H. E., F. D. Marks, and R. J. Feinberg, 1984: Stationary and moving convective bands in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 3189–3211.
Yamada, H., 2008: Numerical simulations of the role of land surface conditions in the evolution and structure of summertime thunderstorms over a flat highland. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 173–188.
Yamasaki, M., 1983: A further study of the tropical cyclone without parameterizing the effects of cumulus convection. Pap. Meteor. Geophys., 34, 221–260.
Zipser, E. J., 1977: Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of squall-line circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 1568–1589.
Zonal flow is roughly cross-band flow because of the band’s quasi-north–south orientation.