This work was made possible by support from the U.S. National Weather Service, the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command through an interagency agreement with the National Science Foundation. We are grateful to Martin Charron and Ronald Frenette (Environment Canada) for providing the REPS and GEM data, without which the presented analysis could not have been possible. This paper has been improved by thorough and insightful revisions provided by three anonymous reviewers, and the valuable comments and suggestions of Eric Grimit (3TIER); Sue Ellen Haupt, Tara Jensen, and Daniel Steinhoff (NCAR); Cliff Mass (University of Washington); and Thomas Nipen (University of British Columbia).
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