The authors are grateful to Dr. Jennifer A. Frances, Dr. Judah L. Cohen, and an anonymous reviewer for their support and constructive suggestions, which helped to significantly improve this paper. The authors thank Dr. Jingzhi Su for kindly providing simulation experiments with the ECHAM5 model forced by Northern Hemisphere sea ice concentration. This study was supported by the National Key Basic Research Project of China (2013CBA01804), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41221064), the Chinese Project (GYHY200906017), and the State Oceanic Administration Project (201205007). AH was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-97ER62402. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
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