We thank Pascale Delecluse and Gurvan Madec for many useful discussions during this study. We are also indebted to Christophe Maes for providing us the results of his simulation run with OPA. We thank Anthony Weaver, Kevin Speer, and Sabrina Speich for their assistance in the correction of the manuscript. It is a pleasure to acknowledge comments and suggestions by the editor, Julian P. McCreary, which influenced the revisions and considerably improved the legibility of the paper. Part of the study was initiated during the stage de DEA of SR at LODYC. Support for this study has been provided by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Lagrangian computations were performed on the Cray C94 of the Institut du Développement et des Ressources en Informatique Scientifique (IDRIS) and analyzed with the computational resources available at LODYC.
Arakawa, A., 1972: Design of the UCLA general circulation model. Numerical simulation of weather and climate. Tech. Rep. 7, Dept. of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles, 116 pp.
Blanke, B., and P. Delecluse, 1993: Variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean simulated by a general circulation model with two different mixed-layer physics. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 1363–1388.
Boulanger, J.-P., C. Maes, P. Delecluse, and C. Lévy, 1996: Equatorial waves in an OGCM. Mon. Wea. Rev., in press.
Chiswell, S. M., K. A. Donohue, and M. Wimbush, 1995: Variability in the central equatorial Pacific, 1985–1989. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 15 849–15 863.
Christensen, N., Jr., 1971: Observations of the Cromwell Current near the Galapagos Islands. Deep-Sea Res.,18, 27–33.
Delcroix, T., G. Eldin, M.-H. Radenac, J. Toole, and E. Firing, 1992: Variation of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, 1986–1988. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5423–5445.
Delecluse, P., G. Madec, M. Imbard, and C. Lévy, 1993: OPA version 7 Ocean General Circulation Model—Reference Manual. Rapport Interne LODYC 93/05, 111 pp. [Available from LODYC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris.].
——, J. Servain, C. Lévy, K. Arpe, and L. Bengtsson, 1994: On the connection between the 1984 Atlantic warm event and the 1982–1983 ENSO. Tellus,46A, 448–464.
Esbensen, S. K., and V. Kushnir, 1981: The heat budget of the global ocean: An atlas based on estimates from marine surface observations. Climatic Research Institution Rep. 29, 27 pp.
Fine, R. A., R. Lukas, F. M. Bingham, M. J. Warner, and R. H. Gammon, 1994: The western equatorial Pacific: A water mass crossroads. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 25 063–25 080.
Firing, E., R. Lukas, J. Sadler, and K. Wyrtki, 1983: Equatorial Undercurrent disappears during 1982–1983 El Niño. Science,222, p. 1121.
Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 1093–1104.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper No. 13, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 173 pp.
Lindstrom, E., R. Lukas, R. Fine, E. Firing, S. Godfrey, G. Meyers, and M. Tsuchiya, 1987: The Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study. Nature,330, 533–537.
Liu, Z., 1994: A simple model of the mass exchange between the subtropical and tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 1153–1165.
——, S. G. H. Philander, and R. C. Pacanowski, 1994: A GCM study of tropical–subtropical upper-ocean water exchange. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 2606–2623.
Lu, P., and J. P. McCreary Jr., 1995: Influence of the ITCZ on the flow of thermocline water from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 3076–3088.
Lukas, R., 1986: The termination of the Equatorial Undercurrent in the eastern Pacific. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 16, Pergammon, 63–90.
——, E. Firing, P. Hacker, P. L. Richardson, C. A. Collins, R. Fine, and R. Gammon, 1991: Observations of the Mindanao Current during the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 7089–7104.
Maes, C., G. Madec, and P. Delecluse, 1997: Sensitivity of an equatorial Pacific OGCM to lateral diffusion. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 958–971.
Marti, O., G. Madec, and P. Delecluse, 1992: Comment on “Net diffusivity in ocean general circulation models with nonuniform grids” by F. L. Yin and I. Y. Fung. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 12 763–12 766.
McCreary, J. P., Jr., and P. Lu, 1994: Interaction between the subtropical and equatorial ocean circulations: The subtropical cell. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 466–497.
Pedlosky, J., 1987: An inertial theory of the Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 1978–1985.
——, 1988: Entrainment and the termination of the Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 880–886.
——, 1991: The link between western boundary currents and equatorial undercurrents. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,21, 1553–1558.
Picaut, J., and R. Tournier, 1991: Monitoring the 1979–1985 equatorial Pacific current transports with expandable bathythermograph data. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 3263–3277.
Speich, S., 1992: Etude du forçage de la circulation océanique par les détroits: Cas de la Mer d’Alboran. Thèse de 3ème cycle, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 245 pp.
Stevenson, M. R., and B. A. Taft, 1970: New evidence of the Equatorial Undercurrent east of the Galapagos Islands. J. Mar. Res.,29, 103–115.
Tsuchiya, M., 1981: The origin of the Pacific equatorial 13°C water. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 794–812.
——, R. Lukas, R. A. Fine, E. Firing, and E. Lindstrom, 1989: Source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 23, Pergammon, 101–147.
Wacongne, S., 1989: Dynamical regimes of a fully nonlinear stratified model of the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 4801–4815.
——, 1990: On the difference in strength between Atlantic and Pacific undercurrents. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 792–799.