PC’s and JAP’s research was supported by the Office of Science (BER) of the U.S. Department of Energy through Grant DE-FG02-01ER63252, and WRY’s research was supported by NSF OCE96-16017. We acknowledge the Center for Computational Sciences-Climate and Carbon Research (CCS-CCR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for computational resources used in support of this project.
Andrews, D., and M. McIntyre, 1976: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen–Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 2031–2048.
Cenedese, C., J. Marshall, and J. Whitehead, 2004: A laboratory model of the thermocline depth and exchange fluxes across circumpolar fronts. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 656–667.
Emanuel, K., 2001: Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 14771–14781.
Gallego, B., P. Cessi, and J. C. McWilliams, 2004: The Antarctic Circumpolar Current in equilibrium. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 1571–1587.
Gill, A. E., J. S. A. Green, and A. J. Simmons, 1974: Energy partition in the large-scale ocean circulation and the production of mid-ocean eddies. Deep-Sea Res., 21 , 499–528.
Green, J., 1970: Transfer properties of the large-scale eddies in the general circulation of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96 , 157–185.
Henning, C., and G. Vallis, 2005: The effects of mesoscale eddies on the stratification and transport of an ocean with a circumpolar channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 880–896.
Karsten, R., H. Jones, and J. Marshall, 2002: The role of eddy transfer in setting the stratification and transport of a circumpolar current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32 , 39–54.
Kuo, A., A. Plumb, and J. Marshall, 2005: Transformed Eulerian-mean theory. Part II: Potential vorticity homogenization, and the equilibrium of a wind- and buoyancy-driven zonal flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 175–187.
Larichev, V. D., and I. M. Held, 1995: Eddy amplitudes and fluxes in a homogeneous model of fully developed baroclinic instability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25 , 2285–2297.
Marshall, J., and T. Radko, 2003: Residual-mean solutions for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its associated overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33 , 2341–2354.
Marshall, J., D. Olbers, H. Ross, and D. Wolf-Gladrow, 1993: Potential vorticity constraints on the dynamics and hydrography of the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 465–487.
Marshall, J., C. Hill, L. Pereleman, and A. Adcroft, 1997a: Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 5733–5752.
Marshall, J., A. Adcroft, C. Hill, and L. Pereleman, 1997b: A finite-volume, incompressible Navier-Stokes model for studies of the ocean on parallel computers. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 5753–5766.
Olbers, D., and M. Visbeck, 2005: A model of the zonally averaged stratification and overturning in the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 1190–1205.
Plumb, R. A., and R. Ferrari, 2005: Transformed Eulerian mean theory. Part I: Nonquasigeostrophic theory for eddies on a zonal-mean flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 , 165–174.
Riviere, P., A. M. Treguier, and P. Klein, 2004: Effects of bottom friction on nonlinear equilibration of an oceanic baroclinic jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34 , 416–432.
Smith, K. S., G. Boccaletti, C. C. Hennings, I. Marinov, C. Y. Tarn, I. M. Held, and G. K. Vallis, 2002: Turbulent diffusion in the geostrophic inverse cascade. J. Fluid Mech., 469 , 13–48.
Thompson, A. F., and W. Young, 2005: Scaling baroclinic eddy fluxes: Vortices and energy balance. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36 , 720–738.
Trenberth, K., J. Caron, and D. Stepaniak, 2001: The atmospheric energy budget and implications for surface fluxes and ocean heat transports. Climate Dyn., 17 , 259–276.