The present work was partly conducted as a part of the Japanese Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment (JCOPE) activities of FRSGC under Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Guo thanks the financial support by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) from Monbu Kagakusho (Grant 17710014). We thank Drs. H. Takeoka, Y. Sugimoto, and T. Kagimoto for their helpful suggestions, Dr. E. Oka for providing the figure of observation data along the PN line, and Dr. D. Takahashi for drawing Fig. 9. We thank Drs. Arnoldo Valle-Levinson and Andres Tejada-Martinez for their comments on the manuscript. The comments of anonymous reviewers were helpful in improving the original manuscript.
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