The author thanks Eric Slater, Lloyd Green, Mike Goldin, Chris Neely, and Chris Halle of the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography for assistance in the design, construction, and operation of the sonars used in SHEBA. Andreas Heiberg, John Bitters, Deane Stewart, and Roger Anderson of the University of Washington provided critical assistance with the ice-camp operations, as did Jay Ardai of Lamont-Doherty Geophysical Observatory. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.
Fritts, D. C., 1984: Gravity wave saturation in the middle atmosphere, a review of theory and observations. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 22 , 275–308.
Halle, C., , and R. Pinkel, 2003: Internal wave variability in the Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1993/94. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3210, doi:10.1029/2000JC000703.
Hasselmann, K., and Coauthors, 1973: Measurements of wind-wave growth and swell decay during the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP). Dtsch. Hydrogr. Z., 12 , Suppl. A. 8–12.
Levine, M. D., 1990: Internal waves under the Arctic pack ice during the Arctic internal wave experiment: The coherence structure. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , 7347–7357.
Levine, M. D., , C. A. Paulson, , and J. H. Morison, 1985: Internal waves in the Arctic Ocean: Comparison with lower-latitude observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15 , 800–809.
Merrifield, M., , and R. Pinkel, 1996: Inertial currents in the Beaufort Sea: Observations of response to wind and shear. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 6577–6590.
Morison, J., 1986: Internal waves in the Arctic Ocean: A review. The Geophysics of Sea Ice, N. Untersteiner, Ed., Plenum Press, 1163–1183.
Müller, P., 1988: Vortical motions. Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean, J. C. J. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart, Eds., Elsevier, 285–301.
Müller, P., , E. A. D’Asaro, , and G. Holloway, 1992: Internal gravity waves and mixing. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 73 , 3. 25–32.
Munk, W. H., 1981: Internal waves and small-scale processes. Evolution of Physical Oceanography, B. A. Warren and C. Wunsch, Eds., MIT Press, 264–291.
Pierson, W. J., , and L. Moskowitz, 1964: A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii. J. Geophys. Res., 69 , 5181–5190.
Pinkel, R., 1984: Doppler sonar observations of internal waves: The wavenumber frequency spectrum. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 , 1249–1270.
Pinkel, R., 2008: Advection, phase distortion, and the frequency spectrum of fine-scale fields in the sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 , 291–313.
Pinkel, R., , and J. A. Smith, 1992: Repeat-sequence coding for the improved performance of Doppler sonar and sodar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 9 , 149–163.
Polzin, K., , E. Kunze, , J. Hummon, , and E. Firing, 2002: The finescale response of lowered ADCP velocity profiles. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19 , 205–224.
Sherman, J. T., , and R. Pinkel, 1991: Estimates of the vertical wavenumber– frequency spectra of vertical shear and strain. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21 , 292–303.