This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research through Grants N00014-09-M-0112 (TK) and N00014-06-1-0178 (AP, JT). Author TK also received support from a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research Postdoctoral Scholarship. Computing resources were provided from the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. We thank Gene Terray, Tom Farrar, and Jerry Smith for stimulating discussions. Two anonymous reviewers provided constructive comments.
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