This research was supported by NOAA/Climate Program Office/Sectoral Applications Research Program Grants NA06OAR43100681 and NA08OAR431067. We are grateful to Doug Kluck (NOAA) and Jesse Aber (State of Montana) for facilitating workshops and other interactions with stakeholders. We are grateful to the editor and three anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments and suggestions that have improved this manuscript substantially.
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The climatic events described throughout this paper are documented in Climatological Data Annual Summaries (by state), published by the NOAA/National Climate Data Center (Ashville, North Carolina).
The NEPA of 1970 established national environmental policy and goals for the protection, maintenance, and enhancement of the environment, and it provides a process for achieving these goals within federal agencies.
The NPDES permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources such as pipes or manmade ditches that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.
A typical state governor’s response team/committee serves as a “clearinghouse” for information by bringing together federal partner agency representatives to report on water supply and moisture/crop conditions, while the state member agency officials take note of the federal reports as it pertains to their respective areas of agency purview and implement proactive mitigative measures as necessary or appropriate. Progress of such actions is reported back to the team/committee at the next monthly meeting or to team/committee staff if urgent in nature. Staff would report to the governor’s office if warranted by the nature and importance of the situation.