This research is supported by NOAA Grant NA17RJ1228 through supplemental hurricane funding made available following the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The authors would also like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments. The views, opinions, and findings in this paper are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official NOAA and/or U.S. government position, policy, or decision.
Bender, M. A., 1997: The effects of relative flow on asymmetric structures in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 703–724.
Chan, J. C. L., and Williams R. T. , 1987: Analytical and numerical studies of the beta-effect in tropical cyclone motion. Part I: Zero mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 1257–1265.
DeMaria, M., and Kaplan J. , 1994a: A Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic basin. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 209–220.
DeMaria, M., and Kaplan J. , 1994b: Sea surface temperature and the maximum intensity of Atlantic tropical cyclones. J. Climate, 7 , 1324–1334.
DeMaria, M., and Kaplan J. , 1999: An updated Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic and eastern North Pacific basins. Wea. Forecasting, 14 , 326–337.
DeMaria, M., Mainelli M. , Shay L. K. , Knaff J. A. , and Kaplan J. , 2005: Further improvement to the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Wea. Forecasting, 20 , 531–543.
Fiorino, M., and Elsberry R. L. , 1989: Some aspects of vortex structure related to tropical cyclone motion. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 975–990.
Jarvinen, C., Neumann J. , and Davis M. A. S. , 1984: A tropical cyclone data tape for the North Atlantic basin, 1886–1983: Contents, limitations and uses. NOAA Tech Memo. NWS NHC 22, Coral Gables, FL, 21 pp. [Available from NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.].
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437–471.
Knaff, J. A., and Zehr R. M. , 2007: Reexamination of tropical cyclone wind–pressure relationships. Wea. Forecasting, 22 , 71–88.
Knaff, J. A., Zehr R. M. , and DeMaria M. , 2005: An operational Statistical Typhoon Intensity Prediction Scheme for the western North Pacific. Wea. Forecasting, 20 , 688–699.
Knaff, J. A., Zehr R. M. , DeMaria M. , Marchok T. P. , Gross J. M. , and McAdie C. J. , 2007: Statistical tropical cyclone wind radii prediction using climatology and persistence. Wea. Forecasting, 22 , 781–791.
Knapp, K. R., and Kossin J. P. , 2007: A new global tropical cyclone data set from ISCCP B1 geostationary satellite observations. J. Appl. Remote Sens., 1 , 013505.
Kossin, J. P., 2002: Daily hurricane variability inferred from GOES infrared imagery. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 2260–2270.
Kossin, J. P., Knaff J. A. , Berger H. I. , Herndon D. C. , Cram T. A. , Velden C. S. , Murnane R. J. , and Hawkins J. D. , 2007: Estimating hurricane wind structure in the absence of aircraft reconnaissance. Wea. Forecasting, 22 , 89–101.
Kwok, J. H. Y., and Chan J. C. L. , 2005: The influence of uniform flow on tropical cyclone intensity change. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3193–3212.
Lord, S. J., 1993: Recent developments in tropical cyclone track forecasting with the NMC Global Analysis and Forecast System. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 290–291.
Maclay, K. S., 2006: A study of tropical cyclone structural evolution. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, 110 pp. [Available from Atmospheric Branch, Morgan Branch, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.].
Mason, S. J., and Graham N. E. , 1999: Conditional probabilities, relative operating characteristics, and relative operating levels. Wea. Forecasting, 14 , 713–725.
Mueller, K. J., DeMaria M. , Knaff J. A. , Kossin J. P. , and Vonder Haar T. H. , 2006: Objective estimation of tropical cyclone wind structure from infrared satellite data. Wea. Forecasting, 21 , 990–1005.
Peng, M. S., Jeng B-F. , and Williams R. T. , 1999: A numerical study on tropical cyclone intensification. Part I: Beta effect and mean flow effect. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1404–1423.
Ritchie, E. A., 2004: Tropical cyclones in complex vertical wind shears. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88–89.
Ritchie, E. A., and Frank W. M. , 2007: Interactions between simulated tropical cyclones and an environment with a variable Coriolis parameter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 1889–1905.
Wang, Y., and Holland G. J. , 1996a: The beta drift of baroclinic vortices. Part I: Adiabatic vorticies. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 411–427.
Wang, Y., and Holland G. J. , 1996b: The beta drift of baroclinic vortices. Part II: Diabatic vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3737–3756.
Wang, Y., and Holland G. J. , 1996c: Tropical cyclone motion and evolution in vertical shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3313–3332.
Wu, L., and Braun S. A. , 2004: Effect of convective asymmetries on hurricane intensity: A numerical study. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 3065–3081.