We thank Lee Cronce (UW-CIMSS), Darryl Herzman (Iowa State University) for technical assistance, and three anonymous reviewers who provided feedback that helped to improve this manuscript. The NEXRAD data provided by NCDC, radar composites by Unidata, severe weather reports provided by SPC, surface elevation maps provided by USGS, the severe warning database provided by Iowa Environmental Mesonet, and GOES-12 data provided by the SSEC Data Center are all greatly appreciated. This research was supported by NASA ROSES Subcontract S09-73322 and NOAA GOES-R Grant NA06NES4400002.
Adler, R. F., Markus M. J. , Fenn D. D. , Szejwach G. , and Shenk W. E. , 1983: Thunderstorm top structure observed by aircraft overflights with an infrared radiometer. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 579–593.
Adler, R. F., Markus M. J. , and Fenn D. D. , 1985: Detection of severe Midwest thunderstorms using geosynchronous satellite data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 769–781.
Bedka, K., 2011: Overshooting cloud-top detections using MSG SEVIRI infrared brightness temperatures and their relationship to severe weather over Europe. Atmos. Res., 99, 175–189.
Bedka, K., Brunner J. , Dworak R. , Feltz W. , Otkin J. , and Greenwald T. , 2010: Objective satellite-based detection of overshooting tops using infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 181–201.
Bedka, K., Dworak R. , Brunner J. , and Feltz W. , 2012: Validation of satellite-based objective overshooting cloud-top detection methods using CloudSat cloud profiling radar observations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., in press.
Brooks, H. E., Lee J. W. , and Craven J. P. , 2003: The spatial distribution of severe thunderstorm and tornado environments from global reanalysis data. Atmos. Res., 67–68, 73–94.
Brunner, J. C., Ackerman S. A. , Bachmeier A. S. , and Rabin R. M. , 2007: A quantitative analysis of the enhanced-V feature in relation to severe weather. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 853–870.
Cecil, D. J., 2009: Passive microwave brightness temperatures as proxies for hailstorms. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48, 1281–1286.
Davies-Jones, R., 2008: Can a descending rain curtain in a supercell instigate tornadogenesis barotropically? J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2469–2497.
Dobur, J. C., 2005: A comparison of severe thunderstorm warning verification statistics and population density within the NWS Atlanta county warning area. Preprints, Fourth Annual Southeast Severe Storms Symp., Starkville, MS, East Mississippi Chapter National Weather Association/Amer. Meteor. Soc., D2–6.
Fujita, T. T., Forbes G. S. , and Umenhofer T. A. , 1976: Close-up view of 20 March 1976 tornadoes: Sinking cloud tops to suction vortices. Weatherwise, 29, 117–131.
Goodman, S. J., and Coauthors, 2005: The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array: Recent severe storm observations and future prospects. Atmos. Res., 76, 423–437.
Heymsfield, G. M., and Blackmer R. H. Jr., 1988: Satellite-observed characteristics of Midwest severe thunderstorm anvils. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2200–2224.
Heymsfield, G. M., Fulton R. , and Spinhirne J. D. , 1991: Aircraft overflight measurements of Midwest severe storms: Implications on geosynchronous satellite interpretations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 436–455.
Kellenbenz, D. J., Grafenauer T. J. , and Davies J. M. , 2007: The North Dakota tornadic supercells of 18 July 2004: Issues concerning high LCL heights and evapotranspiration. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 1200–1213.
Lazzara, M. A., and Coauthors, 1999: The Man computer Interactive Data Access System: 25 years of interactive processing. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 271–284.
Lemon, L. R., Burgess D. W. , and Brown R. A. , 1978: Tornadic storm airflow and morphology derived from single-Doppler radar measurements. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 48–61.
Negri, A. J., 1982: Cloud-top structure of tornadic storms on 10 April 1979 from rapid scan and stereo satellite observations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 63, 1151–1159.
Negri, A. J., and Adler R. F. , 1981: Relation of satellite-based thunderstorm intensity to radar-estimated rainfall. J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 288–300.
Reynolds, D. W., 1980: Observations of damaging hailstorms from geosynchronous satellite digital data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 337–348.
Roberts, R. D., and Wilson J. W. , 1989: A proposed microburst nowcasting procedure using single-Doppler radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 285–303.
Schmit, T. J., Gunshor M. M. , Menzel W. P. , Gurka J. J. , Li J. , and Bachmeier A. S. , 2005: Introducing the next-generation Advanced Baseline Imager on GOES-R. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1079–1096.
Srivastava, R. C., 1987: A model of intense downdrafts driven by the melting and evaporation of precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1752–1773.