The authors would like to express their great thanks to two anonymous reviewers for their constructive and helpful comments for the improvement of this manuscript. Special thanks are due to one of the reviewers for pointing out the limitation of the approach. P. Li would like to express his sincere thanks to the China Scholarship Council for financial support, which made his study in NOAA possible. P. Li was supported by China Postdoctoral Funding under Grant 2012M511545. C. Lu’s efforts toward this study were supported by NOAA. G. Fu was partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 406750060 and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology under 973 Project Grant 2009CB421504. This work was also partly supported by the Chinese Meteorological Administration under Grant GYHY200706031 and the Chinese Government Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (B07036).
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There exists an empirical relationship between Km and Kh; Kh = 1.35 Km in the neutral layer. Values of Km reported in the literature vary from 0.1 to 2000 m2 s−1; here, Km = 0.1 m2 s−1, Kh = 0.135 m2 s−1. In this case θυ is for saturated (cloud) air.